Half a decade ago, the cyclic nucleotides cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cGMP) were identified as key second messenger molecules that mediate the intracellular effects of many signals known as “first messengers,” such as hormones or neurotransmitters. cAMP and cGMP signaling pathways regulate a vast number of physiological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, gene expression, apoptosis, and several metabolic processes, such as insulin secretion, glycogen synthesis, or lipogenesis. After their discovery, many years elapsed before cyclic nucleotides signaling proved to be a selective and effective process to modulate biological pathways. Since then, it has become clear that signaling by cyclic nucleotides modulates a countless number of biological functions, thus requiring a thigh control of their...
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