The first cyclophilin (Cyp/PPIases: EC 18.104.22.168) was isolated more than three decades ago as an intracellular receptor of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) from the bovine thymocyctes (Handschumacher et al. 1984). It was not until 1989, its PPIase activity was elucidated. Cyclophilins comprise a ubiquitous set of proteins which is present across diverse genera of organisms. The single domain cyclophilin has a single cyclophilin-like domain (CLD), whereas multidomain cyclophilins also possess additional domains such as tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR), RNA recognition motif (RRM), tryptophan aspartate domain (WD40), coiled-coil domain (CCD), and internal repeats domain (RPT). Cyclophilins are involved in a myriad of physiological cellular processes, such as protein trafficking and maturation, receptor complex stabilization, apoptosis,...
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