Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Interferon Regulatory Factor

  • Masaud Shah
  • Sangdun Choi
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101496

Synonyms

 IRF1: Interferon regulatory factor 1; MAR

 IRF2: Interferon regulatory factor 2

 IRF3: Interferon regulatory factor 3

 IRF4: Interferon regulatory factor 4; Lymphocyte-specific IRF (LSIRF); PU.1-interaction partner (PIP); ICSBP in adult T-cell leukemia cell lines or activated T cells (ICSAT); Multiple myeloma oncogene 1(MUM1); SHEP8; NF-EM5

 IRF5: Interferon regulatory factor 5; Systemic lupus erythematosus, susceptibility to, 10 (SLEB10)

 IRF6: Interferon regulatory factor 6; Van Der Woude Syndrome (VWS1); OFC6; PPS1

 IRF7: Interferon regulatory factor 7; IMD39

 IRF8: Interferon regulatory factor 8; IFN-consensus-sequence-binding protein (ICSBP)

 IRF9: Interferon regulatory factor 9; IFN-stimulated gene factor 3, Gamma (ISGF3G); ISGF3 P48 Subunit (P48)

Historical Background

Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of type-I interferon transcriptional regulators, consisting of nine members (IRF1-9). The first IRF was identified in 1998 (Miyamoto et al. 1988), and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2015R1A2A2A09001059).

References

  1. Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell. 2006;124(4):783–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Balkhi MY, Fitzgerald KA, Pitha PM. Functional regulation of MyD88-activated interferon regulatory factor 5 by K63-linked polyubiquitination. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28(24):7296–308.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banerjee S, Lu J, Cai Q, Saha A, Jha HC, Dzeng RK, et al. The EBV Latent antigen 3C inhibits apoptosis through targeted regulation of interferon regulatory factors 4 and 8. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(5):e1003314.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barro M, Patton JT. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 subverts innate immune response by inducing degradation of IFN regulatory factor 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(11):4114–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bowie AG, Unterholzner L. Viral evasion and subversion of pattern-recognition receptor signalling. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008;8(12):911–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown J, Wang H, Hajishengallis GN, Martin M. TLR-signaling networks: an integration of adaptor molecules, kinases, and cross-talk. J Dent Res. 2011;90(4):417–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen W, Royer Jr WE. Structural insights into interferon regulatory factor activation. Cell Signal. 2010;22(6):883–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen FF, Jiang G, Xu K, Zheng JN. Function and mechanism by which interferon regulatory factor-1 inhibits oncogenesis. Oncol Lett. 2013;5(2):417–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen HZ, Guo S, Li ZZ, Lu Y, Jiang DS, Zhang R, et al. A critical role for interferon regulatory factor 9 in cerebral ischemic stroke. J Neurosci. 2014;34(36):11897–912.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Colonna M. TLR pathways and IFN-regulatory factors: to each its own. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37(2):306–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dussurget O, Bierne H, Cossart P. The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and the interferon family: type I, type II and type III interferons. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2014;4:50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Escalante CR, Yie J, Thanos D, Aggarwal AK. Structure of IRF-1 with bound DNA reveals determinants of interferon regulation. Nature. 1998;391(6662):103–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Escalante CR, Brass AL, Pongubala JM, Shatova E, Shen L, Singh H, et al. Crystal structure of PU.1/IRF-4/DNA ternary complex. Mol Cell. 2002;10(5):1097–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fragale A, Stellacci E, Ilari R, Remoli AL, Lanciotti A, Perrotti E, et al. Critical role of IRF-8 in negative regulation of TLR3 expression by Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 activity in human myeloid dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2011;186(4):1951–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fujii Y, Shimizu T, Kusumoto M, Kyogoku Y, Taniguchi T, Hakoshima T. Crystal structure of an IRF-DNA complex reveals novel DNA recognition and cooperative binding to a tandem repeat of core sequences. EMBO J. 1999;18(18):5028–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harada H, Fujita T, Miyamoto M, Kimura Y, Maruyama M, Furia A, et al. Structurally similar but functionally distinct factors, IRF-1 and IRF-2, bind to the same regulatory elements of IFN and IFN-inducible genes. Cell. 1989;58(4):729–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Holland JW, Bird S, Williamson B, Woudstra C, Mustafa A, Wang T, et al. Molecular characterization of IRF3 and IRF7 in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss: functional analysis and transcriptional modulation. Mol Immunol. 2008;46(2):269–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Honda K, Taniguchi T. IRFs: master regulators of signalling by Toll-like receptors and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006;6(9):644–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Honma K, Udono H, Kohno T, Yamamoto K, Ogawa A, Takemori T, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 4 negatively regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages in response to LPS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(44):16001–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jia W, Guo Q. Gene structures and promoter characteristics of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), IRF-2 and IRF-7 from snakehead Channa argus. Mol Immunol. 2008;45(8):2419–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kanno Y, Levi BZ, Tamura T, Ozato K. Immune cell-specific amplification of interferon signaling by the IRF-4/8-PU.1 complex. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2005;25(12):770–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lande R, Gilliet M. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: key players in the initiation and regulation of immune responses. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1183:89–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Lazear HM, Lancaster A, Wilkins C, Suthar MS, Huang A, Vick SC, et al. IRF-3, IRF-5, and IRF-7 coordinately regulate the type I IFN response in myeloid dendritic cells downstream of MAVS signaling. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(1):e1003118.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lu R. Interferon regulatory factor 4 and 8 in B-cell development. Trends Immunol. 2008;29(10):487–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mamane Y, Grandvaux N, Hernandez E, Sharma S, Innocente SA, Lee JM, et al. Repression of IRF-4 target genes in human T cell leukemia virus-1 infection. Oncogene. 2002;21(44):6751–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Miyamoto M, Fujita T, Kimura Y, Maruyama M, Harada H, Sudo Y, et al. Regulated expression of a gene encoding a nuclear factor, IRF-1, that specifically binds to IFN-beta gene regulatory elements. Cell. 1988;54(6):903–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Murphy AA, Rosato PC, Parker ZM, Khalenkov A, Leib DA. Synergistic control of herpes simplex virus pathogenesis by IRF-3, and IRF-7 revealed through non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. Virology. 2013;444(1-2):71–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Negishi H, Ohba Y, Yanai H, Takaoka A, Honma K, Yui K, et al. Negative regulation of Toll-like-receptor signaling by IRF-4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(44):15989–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. O’Neill LA, Bowie AG. The family of five: TIR-domain-containing adaptors in Toll-like receptor signalling. Nat Rev Immunol. 2007;7(5):353–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Panne D, Maniatis T, Harrison SC. Crystal structure of ATF-2/c-Jun and IRF-3 bound to the interferon-beta enhancer. EMBO J. 2004;23(22):4384–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Qin BY, Liu C, Lam SS, Srinath H, Delston R, Correia JJ, et al. Crystal structure of IRF-3 reveals mechanism of autoinhibition and virus-induced phosphoactivation. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10(11):913–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Sasai M, Yamamoto M. Pathogen recognition receptors: ligands and signaling pathways by Toll-like receptors. Int Rev Immunol. 2013;32(2):116–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Savitsky D, Tamura T, Yanai H, Taniguchi T. Regulation of immunity and oncogenesis by the IRF transcription factor family. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010;59(4):489–510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sgarbanti M, Borsetti A, Moscufo N, Bellocchi MC, Ridolfi B, Nappi F, et al. Modulation of human immunodeficiency virus 1 replication by interferon regulatory factors. J Exp Med. 2002;195(10):1359–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Takahasi K, Suzuki NN, Horiuchi M, Mori M, Suhara W, Okabe Y, et al. X-ray crystal structure of IRF-3 and its functional implications. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10(11):922–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell. 2010;140(6):805–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Tamura T, Thotakura P, Tanaka TS, Ko MS, Ozato K. Identification of target genes and a unique cis element regulated by IRF-8 in developing macrophages. Blood. 2005;106(6):1938–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tamura T, Yanai H, Savitsky D, Taniguchi T. The IRF family transcription factors in immunity and oncogenesis. Annu Rev Immunol. 2008;26:535–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Taniguchi T, Ogasawara K, Takaoka A, Tanaka N. IRF family of transcription factors as regulators of host defense. Annu Rev Immunol. 2001;19:623–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang H, Morse HC 3rd. IRF8 regulates myeloid and B lymphoid lineage diversification. Immunol Res. 2009;43(1-3):109-17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang L, Ning S. Interferon regulatory factor 4 is activated through c-Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation in virus-transformed cells. J Virol. 2013;87(17):9672–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yanai H, Negishi H, Taniguchi T. The IRF family of transcription factors: Inception, impact and implications in oncogenesis. Oncoimmunology. 2012;1(8):1376–86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhao GN, Jiang DS, Li H. Interferon regulatory factors: at the crossroads of immunity, metabolism, and disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1852(2):365–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular Science and TechnologyAjou UniversitySuwonKorea