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Mammal Habitats in Europe: Geology, Vegetation, and Climate

  • Karl-Georg BernhardtEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbook of the Mammals of Europe book series (HDBME)

Abstract

This chapter starts with the physiogeographical structure of Europe, its borders, areas, and locations. Some parts of Macaronesia (Madeira, Canary Islands, Azorean islands) are added. The geology, orography, and soils are described in the summary. A detailed physiogeographical organization describes ten areas of Northern Europe, Western and Central Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, and Macaronesia. They each are subdivided in different physiogeographical regions and provinces. Geographical location, landmass distribution, and topography determine the climatic patterns of Europe. Five main thermal zones can be distinguished from north to south: arctic, boreal, temperate, submeridional, and meridional. The climatic classification of Europe is the basis for the phytogeographical division of Europe. It includes floristic zones and regional subdivisions. At the end the Late-Glacial and Holocene vegetation history of Europe is summarized.

Keywords

Geology Climate Biogeography Vegetation history Landscape development 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research, Institute of BotanyUniversity of Life Sciences and Natural Resources, ViennaViennaAustria

Section editors and affiliations

  • Klaus Hackländer
    • 1
  • Frank E. Zachos
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity ResearchUniversity of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU)ViennaAustria
  2. 2.Mammal CollectionNatural History Museum ViennaViennaAustria

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