Molecular Mechanisms of Apoptosis in Naive and Memory Human T-Cell Subsets

Effect of Age
  • Sudhir GuptaEmail author
  • Ankmalika Gupta
Living reference work entry


There are multiple ways for cells to die, including necrosis and apoptosis. Apoptosis or programmed cell death or suicidal cell death is a physiological form of cell death, which is critical in cellular homeostasis. Apoptosis occurs in almost all cell types in the body and begins as early as eight-cell embryo stage and continues throughout the lifespan of the organism, albeit at different rate. There are multiple roads to apoptotic cell death, including extrinsic or death receptor-mediated and intrinsic, which may be mediated via mitochondrial pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathways. Most of apoptotic cell deaths are mediated by serine proteases, the caspases, which cleave a number of target substrates, including enzymes, transcription factors, and structural proteins. However, apoptosis may also be mediated by caspase-independent pathways. In this review, we will discuss molecular signaling and regulation of death receptor pathways, particularly CD95- and TNFR-mediated apoptosis and mitochondrial and ER stress pathways of apoptosis in naïve and various memory subsets of T cells, and changes during human aging.


CD95 Caspases NF-kB FLIP TNF receptors Mitochondria ER stress 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Basic and Clinical ImmunologyUniversity of California at IrvineIrvineUSA
  2. 2.Allergy & ImmunologyHoag Medical GroupNewport BeachUSA

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