Lymphocyte Subtypes and Functions in Centenarians as Models for Successful Aging
- 478 Downloads
Several cell subsets participate to the immune response, and their close interplay is fundamental for the successful elimination of harmful pathogens. Immune system undergoes a progressive and profound remodeling of its functions with aging. This process is evidenced by a continuous change in the relative percentages, absolute number, and functionality of the subsets of lymphocytes that ultimately form the immune system.
In this chapter, we describe the main changes in lymphocyte subtypes and functions that occur with age, paying particular attention to centenarians, exceptional individuals who reach the extreme limits of human life in good state of health. A particular emphasis is dedicated to changes observed in particular subsets, like regulatory T cells, invariant natural killer T cells, or mucosal-associated invariant T cells, whose role in many chronic inflammatory diseases or autoimmune diseases has been recently evidenced.
KeywordsCentenarians Polychromatic flow cytometry Successful aging Treg
Sara De Biasi is an International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Marylou Ingram Scholar.
- Bagnara GP, Bonsi L, Strippoli P, Bonifazi F, Tonelli R, D’Addato S et al (2000) Hemopoiesis in healthy old people and centenarians: well-maintained responsiveness of CD34+ cells to hemopoietic growth factors and remodeling of cytokine network. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55:B61–B66. discussion B67–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cossarizza A, Monti D, Bersani F, Paganelli R, Montagnani G, Cadossi R et al (1989) Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increase interleukin-2 (IL-2) utilization and IL-2 receptor expression in mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes from old subjects. FEBS Lett 248:141–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Derhovanessian E, Maier AB, Hahnel K, Zelba H, de Craen AJ, Roelofs H et al (2013) Lower proportion of naive peripheral CD8+ T cells and an unopposed pro-inflammatory response to human Cytomegalovirus proteins in vitro are associated with longer survival in very elderly people. Age (Dordr) 35:1387–1399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jing Y, Gravenstein S, Rao Chaganty N, Chen N, Lyerly KH, Joyce S et al (2007) Aging is associated with a rapid decline in frequency, alterations in subset composition, and enhanced Th2 response in CD1d-restricted NKT cells from human peripheral blood. Exp Gerontol 42:719–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kitamura H, Iwakabe K, Yahata T, Nishimura S, Ohta A, Ohmi Y et al (1999) The natural killer T (NKT) cell ligand alpha-galactosylceramide demonstrates its immunopotentiating effect by inducing interleukin (IL)-12 production by dendritic cells and IL-12 receptor expression on NKT cells. J Exp Med 189:1121–1128PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mocchegiani E, Muzzioli M, Giacconi R, Cipriano C, Gasparini N, Franceschi C et al (2003) Metallothioneins/PARP-1/IL-6 interplay on natural killer cell activity in elderly: parallelism with nonagenarians and old infected humans. Effect of zinc supply. Mech Ageing Dev 124:459–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wikby A, Ferguson F, Forsey R, Thompson J, Strindhall J, Lofgren S et al (2005) An immune risk phenotype, cognitive impairment, and survival in very late life: impact of allostatic load in Swedish octogenarian and nonagenarian humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60:556–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar