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Immunology of Osteoporosis

  • Katharina Kerschan-Schindl
  • Elena Nebot Valenzuela
  • Peter Pietschmann
Living reference work entry

Abstract

In healthy bone, resorption and formation are balanced. Bone metabolism involves different cells and is influenced by many regulatory factors: age, genetics, mechanical stimulus, hormones, endocrine diseases, and medication. Disturbances in bone metabolism may lead to osteoporosis, a frequent disease in postmenopausal women, elderly subjects, patients suffering from inflammatory diseases, as well as patients who need glucocorticoids or immunosuppressive medication. Osteoclasts and immune cells share the same progenitors, the same microenvironment, and a number of regulatory molecules as well. The tight connection between the bone and immune cells explains the cross talk between these systems. In this chapter, the negative effects of the decline of ovarian function, senescence-associated inflammaging, pro-inflammatory cytokines expressed by immune cells, and immunosuppressive therapy on bone metabolism are described, and especially immunological aspects are highlighted. Studies further evaluating the cross talk between the bone and immune cells may lead to new, even more effective therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of primary and secondary osteoporosis.

Keywords

Osteoporosis Osteoimmunology Osteoclast Osteoblast RANKL Osteoprotegerin Rheumatoid arthritis Organ transplantation 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katharina Kerschan-Schindl
    • 1
  • Elena Nebot Valenzuela
    • 2
    • 3
  • Peter Pietschmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and ImmunologyMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.Department of Physiology and Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of PharmacyUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain

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