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MitomiRs in Human Inflamm-Aging

  • Angelica Giuliani
  • Luigina Micolucci
  • Fabiola Olivieri
  • Antonio Domenico Procopio
  • Maria Rita Rippo
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Mitochondria are intimately involved in aging. Diminished autophagic clearance affects the equilibrium between fusion and fission, inducing accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, oxidative stress, a chronic low-grade inflammation, and increased apoptosis, the hallmarks of aging. Several microRNAs (MiRs) are differentially expressed during cell aging and modulate inflammation. Research data suggest that selected MiRs share in “inflamm-aging,” an aging-related state characterized by chronic systemic inflammation that favors susceptibility to age-related diseases. MiRs can modulate mitochondrial activity, and a miR set has recently been identified in mitochondria of different species and cell types (mitomiRs). Some mitomiRs (let-7b, miR-19b, miR-20a, miR-24, miR-34a, miR-106a, miR-125b, miR-146a, miR-181a and miR-181c, miR-210, miR-221, miR-486-5p, miR-494, miR-542-5p) are closely involved in cell aging and inflamm-aging and target some resident mitochondrial proteins involved in apoptosis and energy metabolism. In particular, (i) Bcl-2 family members play large roles in mitochondrial integrity, and Bcl-2 exerts antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects and regulates mitochondrial fission/fusion and autophagy; and (ii) OxPhos proteins of nuclear and mitochondrial origin generate free radicals/ROS and drive ATP production, which is strongly reduced in aging cells. This intriguing construct is supported by the observation that in aging cells most of the above mitomiRs and their protein targets are significantly modulated and are involved in key processes, including growth, proliferation, death, and survival. Thus, aging-related mitomiRs may play a direct role in mitochondrial function by regulating protein expression, whose modulation could mediate the loss of mitochondrial integrity and function, inducing or contributing to the inflammatory response and to age-related diseases.

Keywords

miRNA Mitochondria MitomiR Aging Inflamm-aging Bcl-2 family OxPhos 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Dr. S. Modena (www.silviamodena.com) for text editing. This work was supported by grants from Università Politecnica delle Marche to M.R.R.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelica Giuliani
    • 1
  • Luigina Micolucci
    • 1
  • Fabiola Olivieri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Antonio Domenico Procopio
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria Rita Rippo
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences (DISCLIMO)Università Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly
  2. 2.Center of Clinical Pathology and Innovative TherapyItalian National Research Center on Aging (INRCA-IRCCS)AnconaItaly

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