Human Trafficking in the Russian Federation: Scope of the Problem

  • Irina ChurakovaEmail author
  • Amanda van der Westhuizen
Living reference work entry


According to international anti-trafficking standards (TVPA, EU Directive No 21011/36/EU), countries are required to demonstrate a commitment to eliminate all forms of trafficking, including but not limited to, trafficking for sexual exploitation, forced labor, forced marriages, and organ removal. The chapter draws upon the scope of human trafficking in the Russian Federation in the twenty-first century, investigating the policies and strategies of the state to combat human trafficking issues and consider the extent to which they are effectively reducing or responding to the exploitation. The chapter explores the role of state social services in addressing some of the solutions and challenges that the country faces in preventing and combating human trafficking and focus on the partnership of NGOs and the state. Mentioning the latter war conflicts and some major national construction projects, the authors further illustrate the fundamental mechanisms that the Russian state has implemented in direct response to human trafficking and, more broadly, essential efforts to address the exploitation of vulnerable migrant populations. The chapter concludes with policy recommendations on the development and implementation of the National action plan and counter-trafficking strategies or the 4‘P’s – prevention, prosecution, protection, and partnership.


Russian Federation Human trafficking Sexual exploitation Forced labor Migrant populations Push and pull factors 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MoscowRussian Federation
  2. 2.University of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa

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