Family-Based Non-State Torturers Who Traffic Their Daughters: Praxis Principles and Healing Epiphanies

  • Jeanne SarsonEmail author
  • Elizabeth Gordon
  • Linda MacDonald
Living reference work entry


This is a praxis-based chapter with a feminist human rights lens. Drawing on the authors’ knowledge-based experiences, it explains that women and girls are subjected to torture and human trafficking by non-State actors in the domestic private sphere. The chapter begins by defining non-State torture and that women tell of being born into family-based systems that also trafficked them. Validating the credibility and reliability of women’s disclosures is derived from research examining the online Internet sexualized victimization and torture of children. A family-based typology is outlined, conceptualizing these perpetrators are foremost torturers who traffic versus traffickers who torture. Three principles of non-State torture victimization-traumatization informed care utilizing models developed by authors Sarson and MacDonald who have, since 1993, supported women’s healing recovery of their relationship with Self. Their observations are explained sharing intervention models. Author Elizabeth Gordon writes of her recovery from non-State torture human trafficking ordeals beginning in infancy, sharing drawings and art forms that describe three major epiphanies of her recovery. Best practice suggestions close the chapter.


Family-based non-State torture Human trafficking Victimization-traumatization informed care Patriarchal social formation 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanne Sarson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elizabeth Gordon
    • 2
  • Linda MacDonald
    • 1
  1. 1.Persons Against Non-State Torture campaignTruroCanada
  2. 2.LondonUK

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