Advertisement

Criminal Justice System Responses to Human Trafficking

  • Amy FarrellEmail author
  • Brianne Kane
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The criminalization of human trafficking has been a primary anti-trafficking response by nations around the world. Despite the promise of laws designed to promote the prosecution of human trafficking crimes, global reports indicate small numbers of prosecuted offenders. This chapter examines the numerous challenges criminal justice systems face combating human trafficking, with specific focus on the difficulties of identifying victims, investigating human trafficking crimes, supporting victims through the criminal justice system process, and prosecuting and holding offenders accountable.

Keywords

Human trafficking Sex trafficking Labor trafficking Legal reform Police Prosecution 

References

  1. Andrevski H, Joudo Larsen J, Lyneham S (2013) Barriers to trafficked person’s involvement in criminal justice proceedings: An Indonesian case study. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice 451: 1–8Google Scholar
  2. Albonetti C (1987) Prosecutorial discretion: The effects of uncertainty, Law and Society Review 23: 291–313Google Scholar
  3. Aradau C (2004) The perverse politics of four-letter words: Risk and pity in the securitization of human trafficking. Journal of International Studies 33: 251–277Google Scholar
  4. Araujo E (2011) The need for human trafficking policy. AISA Policy Brief 37: 1–10Google Scholar
  5. Aron L, Zweig J, Newmark L (2006) Comprehensive Services for Survivors of Human Trafficking: Findings from Clients in Three Communities. Washington, D.C. Urban InstituteGoogle Scholar
  6. Arsovska J (2008) Decline, change or denial: Human trafficking activities and EU responses in the Balkan triangle. Policing 2: 50–63Google Scholar
  7. Baldwin SB, Eisenman DP, Sayles JN, Ryan G, Chuang KS (2011) Identification of human trafficking victims in health care settings. Health and Human Rights 13: 36–49Google Scholar
  8. Beichner D, Spohn C (2012) Modeling the effects of victim behavior and moral character on prosecutors’ charging decisions in sexual assault cases. Violence and Victims 27: 3–24Google Scholar
  9. Bittner E (1980) Aspects of police work. Boston, MA: Northeastern University PressGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouché V, Farrell A, Wittmer D (2015) Identifying Effective Counter-Trafficking Programs and Practices in the U.S.: Legislative, Legal, and Public Opinion Strategies that Work. Washington, DC: United State Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice (NCJ- 249670)Google Scholar
  11. Bryjak G (1995, December 17) The children condemned to slavery [Opinion]. The San Diego Union Tribune, p. G3Google Scholar
  12. Bureau of Justice Assistance (n.d.) Anti-human trafficking task force initiative. https://www.bja.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?Program_ID=51. Accessed 11 October 2018.
  13. Buzawa E, Buzawa C (2002) Domestic violence: The criminal justice response. Thousand Oaks: SageGoogle Scholar
  14. Caliber Associates (2007) Evaluation of comprehensive services for victims of human trafficking: Key findings and lessons learned. Washington, DC: Caliber and ICF InternationalGoogle Scholar
  15. Chacón JM (2006) Misery and myopia: Understanding the failures of US efforts to stop human trafficking. Immigration and Nationality Law Review 27: 2977–3040Google Scholar
  16. Charnysh V, Lloyd P, Simmons BA (2015) Frames and consensus formation in international relations: The case of trafficking in persons. European Journal of International Relations 21: 323–351Google Scholar
  17. Council of Europe (2006) Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings: Prevention, Protection and Prosecution (conference proceedings, Oslo, November 1–2)Google Scholar
  18. Crank JP (2003) Institutional theory of police: A review of the state of the art. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 26: 186–207Google Scholar
  19. Crank JP (1994) Watchman and community: Myth and institutionalization in policing. Law and Society Review 28: 135–351Google Scholar
  20. Crank JP, Langworthy R (1992) An institutional perspective of policing. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 83: 338–363Google Scholar
  21. Dahl R (1989) Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven, CT: Yale University PressGoogle Scholar
  22. De Baca L, Tisi A (2002) Working together to stop modern-day slavery. Police Chief 69: 78–80Google Scholar
  23. Edelman L (1990) Legal environments and organizational governance: The expansion of due process in the American workplace. American Journal of Sociology 95: 1401–1440Google Scholar
  24. Edelman L (1992) Legal ambiguity and symbolic structures: organizational mediation of civil rights law. American Journal of Sociology 97: 1531–1576Google Scholar
  25. Farrell A, Fahy S (2009) The problem of human trafficking in the US: Public frames and policy responses. Journal of Criminal Justice 37: 617–626Google Scholar
  26. Farrell A, McDevitt J, Fahy S (2010) Where are all the victims? Understanding the determinants of official identification of human trafficking incidents. Criminology and Public Policy 9: 201–233Google Scholar
  27. Farrell A, Owens C, McDevitt J (2014) New laws but few cases: understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases. Crime, Law, and Social Change 61: 139–168Google Scholar
  28. Farrell A, Pfeffer R (2014) Policing human trafficking: Cultural blinders and organizational barriers. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 653: 46–64Google Scholar
  29. Farrell A, Pfeffer R, Bright K (2016) Police perceptions of human trafficking. Journal of Crime and Justice 38: 315–333Google Scholar
  30. Ferraro K (1989) Policing women battering. Social Problems 36: 61–74Google Scholar
  31. Frohmann L (1997) Convictability and Discordant Locales: Reproducing race, class and gender ideologies in prosecutorial decisionmaking. Law and Society Review 31: 531–556Google Scholar
  32. Gallagher A, Holmes P (2008) Developing an effective criminal justice system response to human trafficking: Lessons from the front-line. International Criminal Justice Review 18: 318–343Google Scholar
  33. Geist D (2012) Finding Safe Harbor: Protection, prosecution and state strategies to address prostituted minors. Legislation and Policy Brief 4: 67–127Google Scholar
  34. Grattet R, Jenness V (2005) The reconstruction of law in local settings: Agency discretion, ambiguity, and a surplus of law in the policing of hate crime. Law and Society Review 39: 893–942Google Scholar
  35. Gulati GJ (2012) Representing trafficking: Media in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada. In Brysk A and Choi-Fitzpatrick A (eds) From human trafficking to human Rights. University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 44–69Google Scholar
  36. Hossain M, Zimmerman C, Abas M, Light M, Watts C (2010) The relationship of trauma to mental disorders among trafficked and sexually exploited girls and women. American Journal of Public Health 100: 2442–2449Google Scholar
  37. Hughes D, Denisova T (2001) Trafficking in women from Ukraine. Trends in Organized Crime 6:1–22Google Scholar
  38. Jahic G, Finckenauer J (2005) Representations and misrepresentations of human trafficking. Trends in Organized Crime 8: 24–40Google Scholar
  39. Jenness V, Grattet R (2005) The law-in-between: the effects of organizational perviousness on the policing of hate crimes. Social Problems 52: 337–359Google Scholar
  40. LaFave WR (1965) Arrest: The decision to take a suspect into custody. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  41. Lipsky M (1980) Street-level bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the individual in public service. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Manning PK (1997) Police work: The social organization of policing. Long Grove, IL: Waveland PressGoogle Scholar
  43. Marchionni DM (2012) International human trafficking: An agenda-building analysis of the US and British press. International Communication Gazette 74: 145–158Google Scholar
  44. McCarthy LA (2010) Beyond corruption: An assessment of Russian law enforcement’s fight against human trafficking. Demokratizatsiya 18: 1–27Google Scholar
  45. National Association of Attorneys General (n.d.) NAAG Human Trafficking Committee Initiative Resources. http://www.naag.org/naag/media/campaigns-and-initiatives/naag-human-trafficking-committee-initiative.php. Accessed 15 March 2018.
  46. National Crime Agency (n.d.) Modern Slavery Human Trafficking Unit. http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/about-us/what-we-do/specialist-capabilities/uk-human-trafficking-centre. Accessed 11 October 2018.
  47. Newton P, Mulcahy T, Martin S (2008) Finding victims of human trafficking. Bethesda: National Opinion Research CenterGoogle Scholar
  48. Nolan J, Akiyama Y (1999) An analysis of the factors that affect law enforcement participation in hate crime reporting. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 15: 111–127Google Scholar
  49. Page BI (1994) Democratic Responsiveness? Untangling the Links Between Public Opinion and Policy. PS: Political Science and Politics 27: 9–16Google Scholar
  50. Page BI, Shapiro BY (1993) Effect of Public Opinion on Policy. American Political Science Review 77: 175–190Google Scholar
  51. Renzetti CM, Bush A, Castellanos M, Hunt G (2015) Does training make a difference? An evaluation of a specialized human trafficking training module for law enforcement officers. Journal of Crime and Justice 38: 334–350Google Scholar
  52. Sadruddin H, Walter N, Hidalgo J (2005) Human trafficking in the United States: expanding victim protection beyond prosecution witnesses. Stanford Law and Policy Review 16: 379–416Google Scholar
  53. Sandford R, Martínez DE, Weitzer R (2016) Framing human trafficking: A content analysis of recent U.S. newspaper articles. Journal of Human Trafficking 2: 139–155Google Scholar
  54. Shelley L (2002) The nexus of organized international criminals and terrorism. International Annals of Criminology 20: 85–92Google Scholar
  55. Shelley L, Orttung R (2005) Russia’s efforts to combat human trafficking: efficient crime groups versus irresolute societies and uncoordinated states. In Pridemore WA (ed) Ruling Russia: law, crime and justice in a changing society. Rowman and Littlefield, pp. 167–182Google Scholar
  56. Spears C, Spohn C (1997) The effect of evidence factors and victim characteristics on prosecutors’ charging decisions in sexual assault cases. Justice Quarterly 14: 501–524Google Scholar
  57. Srikantiah J (2007) Perfect victims and real survivors: The iconic victim in domestic human trafficking law. Boston University Law Review 87: 157–211Google Scholar
  58. Stimpson JA, MacKuen MB, Erikson RS (1995) Dynamic Representation. American Political Science Review 89: 543–65Google Scholar
  59. Stolz B (2005) Educating policymakers and setting the criminal justice policymaking agenda: Interest groups and the ‘Victims of Trafficking and Violence Act of 2000’. Criminal Justice 5: 407–430Google Scholar
  60. Stolz B (2007) Interpreting the U.S. human trafficking debate through the lens of symbolic politics. Law and Policy 29: 311–333Google Scholar
  61. Surtees R (2007) Listening to Victims: Experiences of Identification, Return and Assistance in South-Eastern Europe. Vienna, Austria: International Centre for Migration Policy DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  62. Trafficking Victims Protection Act, Pub. L. No. 106–386 (2000). H.R. 3244, 106th Cong. 2nd Sess. 2000 (codified as amended).Google Scholar
  63. Transparency International (2014) Corruption Perceptions Index 2014. Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  64. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2014) Global report on trafficking in persons, 2014. New York, NY: United NationsGoogle Scholar
  65. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) Global report on trafficking in persons, 2016. New York, NY: United NationsGoogle Scholar
  66. US Department of State (2017) Trafficking in persons report. Washington, DC: AuthorGoogle Scholar
  67. Verhoeven M, Van Gestel B (2011) Human trafficking and criminal investigation strategies in the Amsterdam Red Light District. Trends in Organized Crime 14: 148–164Google Scholar
  68. Van der Watt M, van der Westhuizen A (2017) (Re)configuring the criminal justice response to human trafficking: a complex-systems perspective, Police Practice and Research 18: 218–229Google Scholar
  69. Weitzer R (2007) The social construction of sex trafficking: Ideology and institutionalization of a moral crusade. Politics and Society 35: 447–475Google Scholar
  70. Weitzer R (2015) Human trafficking and contemporary slavery. Annual Review of Sociology 41: 223–242Google Scholar
  71. Wilson DG, Walsh WF Kleuber S (2006) Trafficking in human beings: Training and services among U.S. law enforcement agencies. Police Practices and Research 7: 149–160Google Scholar
  72. Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children (2007) The U.S. response to human trafficking: An unbalanced approach. New York: AuthorGoogle Scholar
  73. Zimmerman C, Hossain M, Yun K, Gajadziev V, Guzun N, Tchomarova M, Ciarrocchi RA, Johansson A, Kefurtova A, Scondanibbio S, Motus MN, Roche B, Morison L, Watts C (2008) The health of trafficked women: a survey of women entering post trafficking services in Europe. American Journal of Public Health 98: 55–59Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northeastern UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations