The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking pp 1587-1603 | Cite as
The Praxis of Protection: Working with – and Against – Human Trafficking Discourse
- 54 Downloads
This chapter considers the symbolic violence that is inflicted when trafficking discourse is imposed on social phenomena, vulnerable groups, and the praxis of protection. It is argued that this symbolic violence derives from the reductive construction of trafficking discourse and its foundation in international criminal law and the combative deployment of this discourse by powerful movements, organizations, governments, and rival social fields. Consequently, those who have the power to construct social phenomena as human trafficking tend to do so in accordance with the prevailing aims and understandings within their groups and social fields. Such perspectives can be difficult to reconcile, however, with the alternative aims, understandings, and priorities of those who are closest to the social action, and particularly those who are less powerful and more vulnerable. It is argued, therefore, that the imposition of trafficking discourse, and even the rights ideals associated with victim protection, risks imposing significant social harms. Such risks demonstrate the importance of seeking to understand social problems in the light of local perspectives, social arrangements and cultural norms, and the reflexive challenge of working with – and against – human trafficking discourse.
KeywordsHuman trafficking Victim protection Reintegration Antitrafficking
- Agustín, L. M. (2007). Sex at the margins: migration, labour markets and the rescue industry. London; New York; Zed Books.Google Scholar
- Andrijasevic, R. (2010) ‘Migration, agency, and citizenship in sex trafficking’ Migration, minorities and citizenship. Houndmills, Basinstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Australian Federal Parliament C2018A00153 (2018) ‘Modern Slavery Act’. 10 December. Australia. Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.au.
- Bearup, L. S. (Forthcoming). Gendered Struggles and Competing Discourses: Pathways to shelter in Cambodia.Google Scholar
- Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1967). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
- Boiro, H., & Einarsdóttir, J. (2018) “A vicious circle”: Repatriation of Bissau-Guinean Quranic Schoolboys From Senegal. Journal of Human Trafficking, https://doi.org/10.1080/23322705.2018.1521643
- Bolton, P., Nadelman, S., & Wallace, T. (2008) ‘Qualitative Assessment of Trafficked Girls in Cambodia’. Phnom Penh: Johns Hopkins University, Boston University, World Vision.Google Scholar
- Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Bourdieu, P. (1998). Practical reason. Oxford, U.K: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Brennan, D. (2014). Life interrupted: trafficking into forced labor in the United States. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- CEDAW (1979) ‘Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women’. United Nations General Assembly. Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3970.html.
- Chuang, J. A. (2014). Exploitation Creep and the Unmkaing of Human Trafficking Law. The American Journal of International Law, 108(4), 609–649. https://doi.org/10.5305/amerjintelaw.108.4.0609.
- Davidson, J. O. C., & Layder, D. (1994). Methods, sex, and madness. London; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Derks, A. (1998) ‘Reintegration of Victims of Trafficking in Cambodia’ [Empirical and Not Peer Reviewed]. Phnom Penh: International Organization for Migration, Center for Advanced Study.Google Scholar
- Derks, A. (2004). The Broken Women of Cambodia. In E. Micollier (Ed.), Sexual Cultures in East Asia. The Social Construction of Sexuality and Sexual Risk in a Time of AIDS (pp. 127–155). London: Routledge, CurzonGoogle Scholar
- Dewey, S. (2008). Hollow bodies: institutional responses to sex trafficking in Armenia, Bosnia, and India. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
- Easterly, W. R. (2006). The white man’s burden: why the West’s efforts to aid the rest have done so much ill and so little good. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
- Ebihara, M. M. (1968) Svay, A Khmer Village in Cambodia. [Doctoral dissertation] Columbia University.Google Scholar
- Escobar, A. (2012). Encountering development: the making and unmaking of the third world. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Gallagher, A. (2010). The International Law of Human Trafficking. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Gallagher, A. (2015). The 2015 US Trafficking Report: signs of decline? Open Democracy. https://opendemocracy.net/5050/anne-gallagher/2015-us-trafficking-report-signs-of-decline. Accessed 6 November 2018.
- Hesford, W. S. (2014). Spectacular Rhetorics. Durham, United States: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- ICCPR (1966) ‘International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’. UN General Assembly. Available at: http://www.un-documents.net/iccpr.htm (Accessed: 2 November 2018).
- IOM (2007) ‘The IOM Handbook on Direct Assistance for Victims of Trafficking’. Geneva: International Organization for Migration. Available at: http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/IOM_Handbook_Assistance.pdf (Accessed: 10 February 2019).
- Jacobsen, T. (2008). Lost Goddesses: The denial of female power in Cambodian history. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.Google Scholar
- Jeffrey, L. A., & MacDonald, G. (2006) ‘Sex Workers in the Maritimes Talk Back’. Vancouver: UBC Press Generic.Google Scholar
- Joint Standing Committee (2017) ‘Hidden in Plain Sight: An inquiry into establishing a Modern Slavery Act in Australia’. Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs. Commonwealth of Australia. Available at: https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/committees/reportjnt/024102/toc_pdf/HiddeninPlainSight.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf (Accessed: 11 February 2019).
- Kempadoo, K., Sanghera, J., & Pattanaik, B. (2005). Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New perspectives on migration, sex work, and human rights. Boulder, Colo: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
- Keo, C. (2011) Human traffickers in Cambodia: From assumptions to evidence. Australian National UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Ledgerwood, J. (1990) Changing Khmer conceptions of gender: Women, stories, and the social order. [Doctoral Dissertation] Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Molland, S. (2012). The perfect business?: anti-trafficking and the sex trade along the Mekong. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
- Molland, S. (2018) ‘Beyond anti-trafficking? Rethinking migration management in Asia’ Paradigm Shift: People Movement. Sydney: College of the Arts and Social Sciences, Australian National University, pp. 69–74 3.Google Scholar
- Parliamentary Inquiry into Modern Slavery (17 August 2017). Briefing provided by representatives from the Cambodian Children’s Trust and Forget Me Not Foundation on the issue of orphanage tourism. Australian Parliament. https://www.aph.gov.au/modernslavery.
- Reimer, J.K., Langeler, E., Seng, S., & Sok, M. (2007) ‘Toward a model of ‘reintegration’ and considerations for alternative care for children trafficked for sexual exploitation in Cambodia’. Phnom Penh: Hagar, World Vision. Available at: http://hagarinternational.org/international/files/The-Road-Home.pdf.
- Siddhartha, S. (2018). Sex Trafficking: Victims from Bangladesh to Nepal to India. Kolkata: Books Way.Google Scholar
- Siskin, A., & Wyler, L. S. (2013) ‘Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress’. Congressional Research Service Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress. February 19, 2013. 7–5700 RL34317 Available at: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34317.pdf (Accessed: 30 March 2015).
- Stoyanova, V. (2017). Human trafficking and slavery reconsidered: Conceptual limits and states’ positive obligations in European law. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Suchland, J. (2015). Economies of Violence: Transnational feminism, postsocialism, and the politics of sex trafficking. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Surtees, R. (2010) ‘Monitoring anti-trafficking re/integration programmes: A manual’. Belgium: Trafficking Victims Re/integration Programme, NEXUS Institute. Available at: http://un-act.org/publication/view/monitoring-anti-trafficking-reintegration-programmes-manual/ (Accessed: 7 Feb 2019).
- Surtees, R. (2013) ‘After trafficking: Experiences and challenges in the (re)integration of trafficked persons in the GMS’. Bangkok: Nexus Institute. Available at: www.no-trafficking.org (Accessed: 15 October 2013).
- TAF (2005) ‘Reintegration Assistance for Trafficked Women and Children in Cambodia – A Review’. Phnom Penh: The Asia Foundation.Google Scholar
- Tripp, T. M., & McMahon-Howard, J. (2015). “Perception vs. Reality: The Relationship Between Organized Crime and Human Trafficking in Metropolitan Atlanta.” Faculty Publications, Kennesaw State University. https://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/facpubs/3578.
- TVPA (2000) ‘To combat trafficking in persons, especially into the sex trade, slavery, and involuntary servitude, to reauthorize certain federal programs to prevent violence against women, and for other purposes.’ TVPA. USA: US Government Printing Office 106th Congress Public Law 386. Available at: http://www.state.gov/j/tip/laws/61124.htm.
- UNCRC 44/25 (1989) ‘United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child’. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CRC.aspx.
- UNIAP (2012) ‘Reintegration: Perspectives of victim service agencies on successes & challenges in trafficking victim (re)integration in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region’. COMMIT Region-wide (Re)Integration Initiative; Bangkok: United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking.Google Scholar
- UNICEF (2007) ‘Reversing the Trend: Child Trafficking in East and South-East Asia’. Bangkok: UNICEF.Google Scholar
- UNODC (2009) ‘International framework for action to implement the trafficking in persons protocol’. United Nations office on Drugs and Crime. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/Framework_for_Action_TIP.pdf (Accessed: 11 February 2019).