Advertisement

Combating Trafficking in Persons Through Public Awareness and Legal Education of Duty Bearers in India

  • Geeta SekhonEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Global Report on Trafficking in Persons of 2016 amply demonstrates that no country is immune from trafficking, yet public awareness and perception remains uneven, both globally and also specifically in India. There are also adequate international standards calling upon Member States to generate public awareness and strengthen capacities of duty bearers on human trafficking. On the other hand, the actors of the criminal justice system, namely, the police, the prosecutors, and the judiciary, as well as the labor officials, immigration, medical, and other professionals, often do not have adequate knowledge and training of the counter-trafficking legal framework and its application. Against this backdrop, the chapter examines the reasons for the gaps in awareness among the general public. It also assesses gaps in the legal knowledge among the general public and the duty bearers with legal responsibilities and its consequential impact on combating human trafficking, globally and with special reference to India. Current government and nongovernment initiatives from India towards legal and public education on human trafficking are discussed, and some recommendations are provided in the conclusion.

Keywords

Public awareness Legal knowledge Legal education Training Capacity building Duty bearers Childline Campaign Social media 

References

  1. Agarwal S (2018) Internet users in India expected to reach 500 million by June: IAMAI. Available via https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/internet/internet-users-in-india-expected-to-reach-500-million-by-june-iamai/articleshow/63000198.cms. Accessed 12 June 2018
  2. Bales K. (2012) Disposable people: New slavery in the global economy. 3rd ed. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhalla N (2017) Almost 20,000 women and children trafficked in India in 2016. Thomson Reuters Foundation. Available via https://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-trafficking/almost-20000-women-and-children-trafficked-in-india-in-2016-idUSKBN16G29G. Accessed 15 March 2017
  4. Cinema of India (2018) Available via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_of_India. Accessed 29 July 2018
  5. Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2000) Available via https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=IV-11-c&chapter=4&lang=en. Accessed 15 October 2018
  6. Constantine (2017) Available via https://www.colourbox.com/image/sex-trafficking-poster-image-28342791. Accessed 22 August 2018
  7. Delhi High Court, Bachpan Bachao Andolan v/s Union of India, Writ Petition (C) No. 51 of 2006, decided on 18.04.2011.Google Scholar
  8. Dutton DG, Painter S (1993) Emotional Attachments in Abusive Relationships: A Test of Traumatic Bonding Theory. Violence and Victims 8:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dottridge M (2006) Action to Prevent Child Trafficking in South Eastern Europe – A Preliminary Assessment. Terres de Hommes and UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  10. Four “Ps”: Prevention, Protection, Prosecution, Partnerships (2010). Available via https://ctcwcs.files.wordpress.com/2016/07/four-ps.pdf. Accessed 15 August 2018
  11. Indian Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) (2018) Media and Entertainment Industry. Available via https://www.ibef.org/industry/media-entertainment-india.aspx. Accessed 01 November 2018
  12. India March (2017). Available via https://bharatyatra.online/about-yatra/. Accessed 22 October 2018
  13. International Labor Office (2014) Profits and Poverty: The Economics of Forced Labor. ILO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  14. International Labor Office (2017) Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labor and Forced Marriage. ILO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  15. Jordan AD (2002) The Annotated Guide to the UN Trafficking Protocol. International Human Rights Law Group. Available via http://lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/UN%20Trafficking%20Protocol_Ann%20Jordan.pdf. Accessed 21 March 2017
  16. Laghate G (2018) Indians are watching TV for 3 hour 44 minutes every day: BARC India. Available via https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/media/entertainment/indians-are-watching-tv-for-3-hour-44-minutes-every-day-barc-india/articleshow/65151371.cms. Accessed 28 July 2018
  17. Lakshmi (2014). Available via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lakshmi_(2014_film). Accessed 28 July 2018
  18. Levine JA, Schumacher U (2017) Mental health issues in survivors of sex trafficking. Cogent Medicine, 4:1.  https://doi.org/10.1080/2331205X.2017.1278841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Love Sonia (2018). Available via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_Sonia. Accessed 29 July 2018
  20. Mardaani (2014). Available via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mardaani. Accessed 29 July 2018
  21. Naa Bangaru Talli (2013). Available via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naa_Bangaaru_Talli. Accessed 01 August 2018
  22. Nagraj A, Bhalla N (2017) India’s human trafficking data masks reality of the crime – campaigners. Reuters India. Available via https://in.reuters.com/article/india-trafficking/indias-human-trafficking-data-masks-reality-of-the-crime-campaigners-idINKBN1DY1PB. Accessed 4 December 4, 2017
  23. National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) (2016), Crime in India Report. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi. Available via http://ncrb.gov.in/StatPublications/CII/CII2016/pdfs/NEWPDFs/Crime%20in%20India%20-%202016%20Complete%20PDF%20291117.pdf. Accessed 25 August 2017
  24. No Te Engañes/ Don’t be Fooled (2011) U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Available via https://www.cbp.gov/video/birdcage-60.mp4. Accessed 22 April 2018
  25. Pasricha A (2017) Indian Campaigners Use Comics to Raise Trafficking Awareness. Voice of America. Available via https://www.voanews.com/a/indian-campaigners-use-comics-to-raise-trafficking-awareness/3756863.html. Accessed 20 June 2018
  26. Prawit T (2011) A Media Campaign to Increase Awareness and Prevention of Human Trafficking in Asia: Background Strategies and Outcome Evaluation of the MTV EXIT Campaign. Third Annual Interdisciplinary Conference on Human Trafficking. Available via http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=humtraffconf3. Accessed 12 September 2018
  27. Press Information Bureau (2010) MHA and IGNOU Join Hands to Launch Certificate Course in Anti-Human Trafficking. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Available via http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=68413. Accessed 27 July 2018
  28. Press Information Bureau (2018) Online Tracking System/Portals for Missing Children. Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India. Available via http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=175406. Accessed 26 January 2018
  29. Save the Children (2018) Media Coverage of the #KidsNotForSale Campaign for Fighting Child Trafficking. Available via https://www.savethechildren.in/resource-centre/media-coverage/media-coverage-on-our-kidsnotforsale-campaign. Accessed 02 October 2018
  30. Sen S, Nair PM (2004) A Report on Trafficking in Women and Children in India, 2002-2003. NHRC – UNIFEM – ISS Project, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  31. Siddharth (2013). Available via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siddharth_(2013_film). Accessed 02 August 2018
  32. Statistics Portal (2018a) Number of mobile phone users in India from 2013 to 2019 (in millions). Available via https://www.statista.com/statistics/274658/forecast-of-mobile-phone-users-in-india/. Accessed 26 August 2018
  33. Statistics Portal (2018b) Leading countries based on number of Facebook users as of October 2018 (in millions). Available via https://www.statista.com/statistics/268136/top-15-countries-based-on-number-of-facebook-users/. Accessed 26 August 2018
  34. Statistics Portal (2018c) Number of monthly active WhatsApp users in India from August 2013 to February 2017 (in millions). Available via https://www.statista.com/statistics/280914/monthly-active-whatsapp-users-in-india/. Accessed 26 August 2018
  35. Supreme Court of India, Bachpan Bachao Andolan v/s Union of India, Writ Petition (Civil) no. 75 of 2012, decided on 10.05.2013Google Scholar
  36. Swaraksha (2016). Report of the Swaraksha campaign made available by NGO Prajwala. Available via http://www.prajwalaindia.com/cbpp.html. Accessed 02 October 2018
  37. Training vs Workshop (2016). Available via https://addontraining.com/training-vs-workshop/. Accessed 24 December 2018
  38. United Nations Office on Drugs Crime (2007) Compendium of Best Practices on Anti-Human Trafficking by Law Enforcement Agencies. UNODC, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  39. United Nations Office on Drugs Crime (2009) International Framework for Action to Implement the Trafficking in Persons Protocol. UNODC, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. United Nations Office on Drugs Crime (2013) India Country Assessment Report: Current Status of Victim Service Providers and Criminal Justice Actors on Anti Human Trafficking. UNODC, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  41. United Nations Office on Drugs Crime (2016) Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. UNODC, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. United States of America, Department of State (2018) Trafficking in Persons Report. Available via https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2018/. Accessed 12 November 2018
  43. Weinert D, Weinert P (2018) The Danger of Human Trafficking Is No Secret in Nepal. Why Is It Still So Common? World Politics Review (WPR). Available via https://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/25630/the-danger-of-human-trafficking-is-no-secret-in-nepal-why-is-it-still-so-common. Accessed 15 August 2018
  44. Yi LB (2018) Thailand taps tourists to fight human trafficking and keep the country smiling. Thomson Reuters Foundation. Available via https://www.reuters.com/article/us-thailand-trafficking-tourism/thailand-taps-tourists-to-fight-human-trafficking-and-keep-the-country-smiling-idUSKBN1HO1D2. Accessed 20 April 2018

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer International Publishing AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Independent Consultant, United NationsNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations