The Onset of Global Violent Extremism and Its Nexus with Human Trafficking
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Violent extremism is an emerging global threat instigated by extremist groups such as ISIS and Boko Haram. These organizations thrive only as a result of the consistent recruitment and indoctrination of new members. To date, preventative measures for those who are vulnerable to exploitation and recruitment have been under-researched in counterterrorism studies. More emphasis is placed on exploring the behaviors and patterns of those already identified as active participants in extremist groups. Recently, case studies have indicated parallels between the factors and patterns found in the recruitment and training of trafficking victims and the radicalization of adults and youth to these extremist causes. This chapter examines patterns currently employed by extremist enslaving groups that mirror those of human traffickers, including recruitment patterns, grooming protocols, coercive manipulation, power dynamics, and psychological coercion. Finally, it suggests gaps within and needed additions to treatment protocols and practices necessary to be developed in the counter-trafficking field that might also support treatment and practices in countering violent extremism.
KeywordsBoko Haram ISIS Violent extremism Recruitment patterns Coercion Gender-based violence Conflict-related sexual violence Terrorism Yazidi
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