Advertisement

Domestic Sex Trafficking of Children

  • Susan C. MappEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

A great deal of attention has been paid to trafficking across international borders; however, comparatively little attention has been given to those who are trafficked within the borders of their own country, including children. While growing attention has been given to this population, there is still confusion and misinformation about this crime. This chapter reviews relevant laws in several nations, as well as risk factors and forms of this crime. Lastly, effective interventions to assist these youth in leaving the life are discussed.

Keywords

Domestic minor sex trafficking Internal child sex trafficking Commercial sexual exploitation of children 

References

  1. Administration for Children & Families. (n.d.). Myths and facts about human trafficking. Retrieved from https://www.acf.hhs.gov/otip/about/myths-facts-human-trafficking
  2. Beckett, H., Brodie, I., Factor, F., Melrose, M., Pearce, J., Pitts, J…Warrington, C. (2013). “It’s wrong…but you get used to it”: A qualitative study of gang-associated sexual violence towards, and exploitation of, young people in England. Retrieved from http://www.childrenscommissioner.gov.uk/publications/its-wrong-you-get-used-it-qualitative-study-gang-associated-sexual-violence-towards-and
  3. Berelowitz, S., Clifton, J., Firimin, C., Gulyurtlu, S., & Edwards, G. (2013). “If only someone had listened”: Office of the Children’s Commissioner’s inquiry into commercial sexual exploitation in gangs and groups. Retrieved from https://www.childrenscommissioner.gov.uk/publication/if-only-someone-had-listened/
  4. Beyer, M. (2011). A developmental view of youth in the juvenile justice system. In F. T. Sherman & F. H. Jacobs (Eds), Juvenile justice: Advancing research, policy, and practice (pp. 3–23). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  5. Blakemore, S., & Robbins, T. W. (2012). Decision-making in the adolescent brain. Nature Neuroscience, 15(9), 1184–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2016). Definitions of human trafficking. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/systemwide/laws-policies/statutes/definitions-trafficking
  7. Cockbain, E., Ashby, M., & Brayley, H. (2017). Immaterial boys? A large-scale exploration of gender-based differences in child sexual exploitation service users. Sexual Abuse, 29(7), 658–684. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1079063215616817
  8. Cockbain, E., & Wortley, R. (2015). Everyday atrocities: Does internal (domestic) sex trafficking of British children satisfy the expectations of opportunities theories of crime? Crime Science, 4, Article 35. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40163-015-0047-0
  9. Criminal Code Amendment (Trafficking in Persons Offences) Act. (2005). Retrieved from https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2005A00096
  10. Dank, M. L. (2011). The commercial sexual exploitation of children. LFB Scholarly: El Paso, TX.Google Scholar
  11. Dank, M., Yahner, J., Madden, K., Bañuelos, I., Yu, L., Ritchie, A…Conner, B. (2015). Surviving the streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ youth, YMSM, and YWSW engaged in survival sex. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/research/publication/surviving-streets-new-york-experiences-lgbtq-youth-ymsm-and-ywsw-engaged-survival-sex
  12. Decker, M. R., McCauley, H. L., Phuengsamran, D., Janyam, S., & Silverman, J. G. (2011). Sex trafficking, sexual risk, sexually transmitted infection and reproductive health among female sex workers in Thailand. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65, 334–339.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2009.096834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dennis, J. P. (2008). Women are victims, men make choices: The invisibility of men and boys in the global sex trade. Gender Issues, 25, 11–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12147-008-9051-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Department for Education. (2017). Child sexual exploitation: Definition and guide for practitioners. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/child-sexual-exploitation-definition-and-guide-for-practitioners
  15. Department of Justice. (2016). Canadian Legislation. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/cj-jp/tp/legis-loi.html
  16. Durso, L. E., & Gates, G. J. (2012). Serving our youth: Findings from a national survey of service providers working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Retrieved from http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/research/safe-schools-and-youth/serving-our-youth-july-2012
  17. Estes, R. J., & Weiner, N. A. (2001). The commercial sexual exploitation of children in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. Retrieved from http://www.sp2.upenn.edu/restes/CSEC_Files/Complete_CSEC_020220.pdf
  18. Franklin, A., Raws, P., & Smeaton, E. (2015). Unprotected, overprotected: Meeting the needs of young people with learning disabilities who experience, or are at risk of, sexual exploitation. Retrieved from https://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/what-we-do/resources-and-publications/unprotected-overprotected-meeting-the-needs-of-young-people
  19. Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network. (2015). The 2015 National School Climate Survey. Retrieved from http://glsen.org/nscs
  20. Goździak, E. M. (2016). Trafficked children and youth in the United States: Reimagining survivors. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Holger-Ambrose, B., Langmade, C., Edinburgh, L. D., & Saewyc, E. (2013). The illusions and juxtapositions of commercial sexual exploitation among youth: Identifying effective street-outreach strategies. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 22, 326–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hounmenou, C. (2016). Exploring child prostitution in a major city in the West African region. Child Abuse & Neglect, 59, 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hounmenou, C., & Her, W. (2017). Distinctiveness in the commercial sexual exploitation of children in sub-Saharan Africa: A review of the literature. Journal of Human Trafficking. [Online before print]  https://doi.org/10.1080/23322705.2017.1365567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. The Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre (HTNCC). (2014). Domestic human trafficking for sexual exploitation in Canada. Royal Canadian Mounted Police: Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  25. Institute of Medicine. (2013). Confronting commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  26. International Labour Organization. (2017). Global estimates of modern slavery. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@dgreports/@dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_575479.pdf
  27. Jayagupta, R. (2009). The Thai government’s repatriation and reintegration programmes: Responding to trafficked female commercial sex workers from the Greater Mekong Subregion. International Migration, 47(2), 227–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kaye, J., Winterdyk, J., & Quarterman, L. (2014). Beyond criminal justice: A case study of responding to human trafficking in Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 56(1), 23–47.  https://doi.org/10.3138/cjccj.2012.E33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kendell, V. M., & Funk, T. M. (2012). Child exploitation and trafficking: Examining the global challenges and U.S. responses. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  30. Kessler, G. (2015, May 28). The bogus claim that 300,000 U.S. children are ‘at risk’ of sexual exploitation. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2015/05/28/the-bogus-claim-that-300000-u-s-children-are-at-risk-of-sexual-exploitation/?utm_term=.13dd26ca0063
  31. Konrad, K., Firk, C., Uhlhaas, P. J. (2013). Brain development during adolescence: Neuroscientific insights into this developmental period. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 110(25), 425–431.Google Scholar
  32. Macdonald, D., & Wilson, D. (2016). Shameful neglect: Indigenous child poverty in Canada. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Retrieved from https://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/shameful-neglect
  33. Mapp, S. C. (2016). Domestic minor sex trafficking. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Marshall, K. (2014). Child sexual exploitation in Northern Ireland: Report of the independent inquiry. Retrieved from http://www.cjini.org/CJNI/files/f0/f094f421-6ae0-4ebd-9cd7-aec04a2cbafa.pdf
  35. Modern Slavery Act 2015. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/30/section/2
  36. National Task Force on Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls in Canada. (2014). “No more”: Ending sex trafficking in Canada – Report of the National Task Force on Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls in Canada. Retrieved from http://canadianwomen.org/sites/canadianwomen.org/files//CWF-TraffickingReport-Auto%20%281%29_0.pdf
  37. Newton, P. (2017, February 23). Canada’s stolen daughters: Sex traffickers target indigenous Canadians. CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2016/08/23/world/canada-indigenous-sex-trafficking/
  38. Nicholls, C. M., Harvey, S., & Paskell, C. (2014). Gendered perceptions: What professionals say about the sexual exploitation of boys and young men in the UK. Retrieved from http://socialwelfare.bl.uk/subject-areas/services-client-groups/children-young-people/barnardos/16666616145_cse_interview_with_professionals_v5.pdf
  39. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2016). Commercial sexual exploitation of children/Sex trafficking. Retrieved from https://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/CSECSexTrafficking.pdf
  40. Pettigrew, W. O. W. (2013). Testimony to Congress: Foster care renders youth within the system more vulnerable to sexual exploitation and trafficking. Retrieved from https://waysandmeans.house.gov/hearing-on-preventing-and-addressing-sex-trafficking-of-youth-in-foster-care/
  41. Reid, J. A. (2018). Sex trafficking of girls with intellectual disabilities: An exploratory mixed methods study. Sexual Abuse, 30(2), 107–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reid, J. A., Baglivio, M. T., Piquero, A. R., Greenwald, M. A., & Epps, N. (2017). Human trafficking of minors and childhood adversity in Florida. American Journal of Public Health, 107(2), 306–311.Google Scholar
  43. Reid, J., Huard, J. & Haskell, R. A. (2014). Family-facilitated juvenile sex trafficking. Journal of Crime and Justice.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0735648X.2014.967965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Romer, D. (2010). Adolescent risk taking, impulsivity, and brain development: Implications for prevention. Developmental Psychobiology, 52(3), 273–276.Google Scholar
  45. Salisbury, E. J., & Dabney, J. D. (2011). Youth victims of Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in Clark County Juvenile Court: Implementing an identification and diversion process. Retrieved from http://sharedhope.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/DMSTCCJC.pdf
  46. Santhya, K. G., Jejeebhoy, S. J., & Basu, S. (2014). Trafficking of minor girls for commercial sexual exploitation in India: A synthesis of available evidence. Retrieved from http://www.popcouncil.org/uploads/pdfs/2014PGY_TraffickingIndia.pdf
  47. Sethi, A. (2007). Domestic sex trafficking of Aboriginal girls in Canada: Issues and implications. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3(3), 57–71.Google Scholar
  48. Shared Hope International. (n.d.). What is sex trafficking? Retrieved from http://sharedhope.org/the-problem/faqs
  49. Shepherd, W., & Lewis, B. (2017). Working with children who are victims or at risk of sexual exploitation: Barnardo’s model of practice. Retrieved from http://www.barnardos.org.uk/cse_barnardo_s_model_of_practice.pdf
  50. Sikka, A. (2009). Trafficking of Aboriginal women and girls in Canada. Retrieved from http://iog.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/May-2009_trafficking_of_aboriginal_women-1.pdf
  51. Smeaton, E. (2013). Going the extra mile: Learning from SECOS’s child sexual exploitation service. Barnardo’s. Retrieved from http://www.barnardos.org.uk/17561_going_the_extra_mile_23_5_16.pdf
  52. Smith, H. A. (2015, March 26). Human trafficking: Are we effectively reaching victims? Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/holly-austin-smith/human-trafficking-are-we-_b_6946592.html
  53. Thomas, M., & Speyer, E. (2016). “I never spoke about it”…: Supporting sexually exploited boys and young men in Wales. Retrieved from http://www.barnardos.org.uk/17595_bs_i_never_spoke_about_it_cse_report_e.pdf
  54. Twill, S. E., Green, D. M., Traylor, A. (2010). A descriptive study on sexually exploited children in residential treatment. Child & Youth Care Forum, 39, 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. United Nations. (2000a). Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons especially women and children. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/ProtocolTraffickingInPersons.aspx
  56. United Nations. (2000b). Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/OPSCCRC.aspx
  57. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2009). Global report on trafficking in persons. Retrieved from http://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/Global_Report_on_TIP.pdf
  58. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2016). Global report on trafficking in persons. Retrieved from http://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/glotip/2016_Global_Report_on_Trafficking_in_Persons.pdf
  59. US Department of Justice. (2013, July 31). Lenexa man charged with child exploitation. Human trafficking rescue project. Operation Guardian Angel. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/usao-wdmo/pr/human-trafficking-rescue-project-4
  60. US Department of State. (2013). Trafficking in persons report 2013. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/index.htm
  61. Woolf, W. (2013, November). Gang-controlled DMST: An overview. Paper presented at Shared Hope International’s JuST (Juvenile Sex Trafficking) conference, Washington, DC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer International Publishing AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Elizabethtown CollegeElizabethtownUSA

Personalised recommendations