Microaggressions and Implicit Biases: Rooted in Structural Racism and Systemic Oppression

Living reference work entry


Community violence not only encompasses overtly aggressive interactions, but also includes subtle, structural, and interpersonal types of aggression. This chapter discusses microaggressions and implicit bias in various community and social contexts. Specifically, these types of community violence and oppression are discussed in relation to the criminal justice system as well as academic/educational and occupational sectors. Lastly, a brief overview of the behavioral health impacts of microaggressions and discrimination are provided.


Microaggressions Systemic oppression Racism Criminal justice Educational disparities 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.John Jay College of Criminal Justice – City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Graduate School of Education and Information ScienceUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.The Graduate Center at CUNYNew YorkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Michael B. Greene
    • 1
  • Robert L. Johnson
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Criminal JusticeRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Rutgers New Jersey Medical SchoolNewarkUSA

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