Autoimmune-mediated encephalitis (AE) is considered an under-recognized disease with many neurological syndromes and specific antibodies described in the past 10 years. Clinical neuroradiology, using different radiological and nuclear medicine techniques such as MRI and FDG-PET, plays a crucial role in suggesting the diagnosis of AE. Bilateral medial temporal lobe T2 hyperintensities are a diagnostic core feature in autoimmune limbic encephalitis and typically predate antibody detection. Specific antibodies are targeted against intracellular or neuronal surface antigens and suggest a either paraneoplastic or non-paraneoplastic origin. MRI is abnormal in around 70% of patients with autoimmune limbic encephalitis and has a lower sensitivity than FDG-PET. The main indication to perform MRI remains the exclusion of a broad list of differential diagnoses.