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Long-Term Epilepsy Associated Tumors

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  • H. UrbachEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs) are the second common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy mostly occurring in young adults. Histologically, glioneuronal and glial tumors are distinguished. Gangliogliomas and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) account for the vast majority of glioneuronal tumors. They are located in the cortex or in the cortex and subcortical white matter; gangliogliomas most commonly in the mesial temporal lobe (“around the collateral sulcus”). MRI using contrast administration is the most important radiological technique. Both tumor types have typical imaging features in terms of location and imaging features, and clinical neuroradiology plays an important role in separating them from glial tumors. This separation is important since more than 70% of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy caused by gangliogliomas and DNETs will become seizure free following extended lesionectomy. Rarer glioneuronal tumors are angiocentric glioma (ANET) and papillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT). Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA), isomorphic astrocytoma, and cortical ependymoma represent rarer epilepsy-associated glioma subtypes, while the association of glioneuronal tumors with neuropil islands and multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) of the cerebrum with epilepsy is less clear.

Keywords

Epilepsy MRI Glioneuronal tumor Ganglioglioma DNET ANET PXA PGNT MVNT 

List of Abbreviations

ANET

Angiocentric neuroepithelial tumor = angiocentric glioma

DNET

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors

FCD

Focal cortical dysplasia

LEAT

Long-term epilepsy-associated tumor

MVNT

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor

PGNT

Papillary glioneuronal tumor

PXA

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neuroradiology, Faculty of MedicineMedical Center – University of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • N. Bargalló
    • 1
  1. 1.Magnetic Resonance Image Core Facility. Institut de Investigació Biomèdica August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS)Image Diagnosis Center (CDIC). Hospital Clínic de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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