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Atopic Dermatitis

  • Neeti Bhardwaj
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Atopic dermatitis (AD) or eczema is a common chronic relapsing skin disease that is often associated with other atopic conditions like allergic rhinitis and asthma. It is a major problem in developing as well as developed countries, with a pronounced increase in prevalence in recent decades. It is often the first clinical manifestation of atopy and the start of atopic march (Spergel, Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 105:99–106, 2010). The hallmark is epidermal barrier dysfunction leading to dry skin and IgE-mediated sensitization to food and environmental allergens. The pathogenesis of AD involves complex interrelationships among genetic, immunologic, environmental, and environmental factors. Recent insights into the genetic and immunologic mechanisms that drive cutaneous inflammation in AD have improved our understanding of its natural history with development of novel immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agents. Early and proactive management may improve the outcome and overall quality of life for these patients.

Keywords

Atopic dermatitis Atopic march Filaggrin Topical corticosteroids Topical calcineurin inhibitors 

Abbreviations

AD

Atopic dermatitis

AMP

Antimicrobial peptides

CCL17

Chemokine ligand 17

CLA

Cutaneous lymphocyte associated

FLG

Filaggrin

GM-CSF

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

HDM

House dust mite

IFN-g

Interferon gamma

IL-4

Interleukin-4

IL-5

Interleukin-5

IL-12

Interleukin-12

IL-13

Interleukin-13

LC

Langerhans cell

PDE4

Phosphodiesterase 4

SCORAD

Scoring atopic dermatitis

TARC

Thymus- and activation-regulated cytokine

TCI

Topical calcineurin inhibitor

TLR

Toll-like receptors

TSLP

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Allergy and ImmunologyThe Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical CenterHersheyUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tim Craig
    • 1
  • Massoud Mahmoudi
    • 2
  1. 1.Penn State UniversityHersheyUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

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