Allergic Ocular Diseases

  • Satoshi YoshidaEmail author
Living reference work entry


The ocular surface may exhibit a wide variety of immunologic responses resulting in inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea. Diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis is generally made by thorough history and careful clinical observation. The presence of an antigen triggers the allergic cascade, and, thus, avoidance of the offending antigen is the primary behavioral modification for all types of allergic conjunctivitis (Takamura et al., Allergol Int 66:220–229, 2017; Takamura, J Jpn Ophthalmol Soc 114:831–870, 2010). In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective symptoms and objective findings accompanying allergic inflammation (Singh et al., J Allergy Clin Immunol 126:778–783, 2010).


Allergic conjunctivitis Atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC) Perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Continuing EducationHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Allergy and ImmunologyYoshida Clinic and Health SystemsTokyoJapan

Section editors and affiliations

  • Dennis K. Ledford
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Allergy & Immunology, Dept. of Internal MedicineUniversity of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, James A Haley Veterans' Hospital, Asthma and Immunology Associates of Tampa BayTampaUSA

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