Pharmacologic Therapy for Rhinitis and Allergic Eye Disease

  • Shan Shan WuEmail author
  • Adi Cosic
  • Kathleen Gibbons
  • William Pender
  • Brian Peppers
  • Robert Hostoffer
Living reference work entry


Allergic rhinitis and allergic eye disease affect the lives of many worldwide. They are Type I IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Allergic rhinitis occurs after sensitization of the mucosal lining of the nasal cavity to allergens. Likewise, allergic conjunctivitis occurs after sensitization of the ocular epithelium to allergens. Avoidance of allergens is the key in prevention of sensitization and the ensuing allergic responses. Various pharmacologic agents are developed to target the different underlying allergic mechanisms that cause the many symptoms of allergic rhinitis and allergic eye disease: antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, anticholinergics, decongestants/vasoconstrictors, corticosteroids, multimodal anti-allergic agents, NSAIDs, and immunomodulators. Oral, intranasal, and topical formulations are available for certain agents. Complementary and alternative form of therapy can provide additional symptomatic relief. Furthermore, at the forefront of research for the treatment and management of allergic diseases including allergic rhinitis and allergic eye disease, allergen-specific immunotherapy with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy can offer potential treatment and cure.


Allergic rhinitis Allergic conjunctivitis Rhinitis Conjunctivitis Antihistamines Intranasal corticosteroids 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shan Shan Wu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Adi Cosic
    • 2
  • Kathleen Gibbons
    • 3
  • William Pender
    • 4
  • Brian Peppers
    • 5
  • Robert Hostoffer
    • 6
  1. 1.University Hospitals Cleveland Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Lake Erie College of Osteopathic MedicineLake ErieUSA
  3. 3.University Hospitals Regional HospitalsTraditional Rotating Internship Residency ProgramRichmond HeightsUSA
  4. 4.Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic MedicineWarrensville HeightsUSA
  5. 5.University Hospitals Regional HospitalsAllergy-Immunology Fellowship ProgramRichmond HeightsUSA
  6. 6.Allergy/Immunology Associates, Inc.Mayfield HeightsUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Timothy Craig
    • 1
  • Dennis K. Ledford
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and PediatricsPenn State College of MedicineHersheyUSA
  2. 2.Division of Allergy & Immunology, Dept. of Internal MedicineUniversity of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, James A Haley Veterans' Hospital, Asthma and Immunology Associates of Tampa BayTampaUSA

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