Non-IgE Food Immunological Diseases

  • Brian Patrick PeppersEmail author
  • Robert Hostoffer
  • Theodore Sher
Living reference work entry


Non-IgE food immunological diseases encompass a wide range of illnesses that can involve one of more systems in the body. The gastrointestinal track is the most commonly involved system, but cutaneous and respiratory systems can also be involved. This chapter will primarily be focused on identification, diagnosis, and treatment options for non-IgE food immunological diseases involving the gastrointestinal track directly. Current difficulties in diagnosis and pathophysiology behind non-IgE food immunological diseases will be explored.


Non-IgE Non-IgE food allergies Mixed IgE food triggers Non-IgE food immunological diseases 


  1. Erdem SB, Nacaroglu HT, Karaman S, Erdur CB, Karkiner CU, Can D. Tolerance development in food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis: single centre experience. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2017;45(3):212–9. Scholar
  2. Fiocchi A, Brozek J, Schunemann H, Bahna SL, von Berg A, Beyer K, … Vieths S. World Allergy Organization (WAO) Diagnosis and Rationale for Action Against Cow’s Milk Allergy (DRACMA) guidelines. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(Suppl 21):1–125.
  3. Fontaine JL, Navarro J. Small intestinal biopsy in cows milk protein allergy in infancy. Arch Dis Child. 1975;50(5):357–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Iyngkaran N, Yadav M, Boey CG, Lam KL. Effect of continued feeding of cows’ milk on asymptomatic infants with milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Arch Dis Child. 1988;63(8):911–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kuitunen P, Visakorpi JK, Savilahti E, Pelkonen P. Malabsorption syndrome with cow’s milk intolerance. Clinical findings and course in 54 cases. Arch Dis Child. 1975;50(5):351–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lake AM. Food-induced eosinophilic proctocolitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;30(Suppl):S58–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lake AM, Whitington PF, Hamilton SR. Dietary protein-induced colitis in breast-fed infants. J Pediatr. 1982;101(6):906–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lucarelli S, Di Nardo G, Lastrucci G, D’Alfonso Y, Marcheggiano A, Federici T, … Cucchiara S. Allergic proctocolitis refractory to maternal hypoallergenic diet in exclusively breast-fed infants: a clinical observation. BMC Gastroenterol. 2011;11:82.
  9. Manti S, Leonardi S, Salpietro A, Del Campo G, Salpietro C, Cuppari C. A systematic review of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome from the last 40 years. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017;118(4):411–8. Scholar
  10. Morita H, Nomura I, Orihara K, Yoshida K, Akasawa A, Tachimoto H, … Matsumoto K. Antigen-specific T-cell responses in patients with non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy are predominantly skewed to T(H)2. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131(2):590–2.e1–6. Scholar
  11. Nowak-Wegrzyn A. Food protein-induced enterocolitis and enteropathies. In: Food allergy. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA USA. 2009. p. 195–210.Google Scholar
  12. Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Assa’ad AH, Bahna SL, Bock SA, Sicherer SH, Teuber SS. Work Group report: oral food challenge testing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(6 Suppl):S365–83. Scholar
  13. Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Katz Y, Mehr SS, Koletzko S. Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(5):1114–24. Scholar
  14. Ravelli A, Villanacci V, Chiappa S, Bolognini S, Manenti S, Fuoti M. Dietary protein-induced proctocolitis in childhood. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103(10):2605–12. Scholar
  15. Saarinen KM, Juntunen-Backman K, Jarvenpaa AL, Kuitunen P, Lope L, Renlund M, … Savilahti E. Supplementary feeding in maternity hospitals and the risk of cow’s milk allergy: a prospective study of 6209 infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;104(2 Pt 1):457–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sampson HA, Aceves S, Bock SA, James J, Jones S, Lang D, … Wood R. Food allergy: a practice parameter update-2014. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(5):1016–25.e43. Scholar
  17. Shiner M, Ballard J, Brook CG, Herman S. Intestinal biopsy in the diagnosis of cow’s milk protein intolerance without acute symptoms. Lancet. 1975;2(7944):1060–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Walker-Smith J. Transient gluten intolerance. Arch Dis Child. 1970;45(242):523–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Walker-Smith J. An eye witness perspective of the changing patterns of food allergy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;17(12):1313–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Winter HS, Antonioli DA, Fukagawa N, Marcial M, Goldman H. Allergy-related proctocolitis in infants: diagnostic usefulness of rectal biopsy. Mod Pathol. 1990;3(1):5–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Xanthakos SA, Schwimmer JB, Melin-Aldana H, Rothenberg ME, Witte DP, Cohen MB. Prevalence and outcome of allergic colitis in healthy infants with rectal bleeding: a prospective cohort study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;41(1):16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yantiss RK. Eosinophils in the GI tract: how many is too many and what do they mean? Mod Pathol. 2015;28(Suppl 1):S7–21. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Patrick Peppers
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert Hostoffer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Theodore Sher
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Allergy and ImmunologyWVU Medicine Children’sMorgantownUSA
  2. 2.Allergy and Immunology Associates, Inc.Mayfield HeightsUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Timothy Craig
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and PediatricsPenn State College of MedicineHersheyUSA

Personalised recommendations