Epidemiology of Allergic Diseases

  • Rayna J. DollEmail author
  • Nancy I. Joseph
  • David McGarry
  • Devi Jhaveri
  • Theodore Sher
  • Robert Hostoffer
Living reference work entry


Allergic diseases are a group of conditions categorized by aberrant IgE-mediated responses following allergen exposure. The prevalence of allergic disease is increasing worldwide. There are many proposed theories as to why the prevalence is increasing with a likely multifactorial etiology. Many allergic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis share similar risk factors. Food allergies appear to have independent risk factors that differ from other allergic diseases. There has been much research completed on the prevalence and other epidemiological factors involved in allergic disease. There is, however, a significant amount of underreported and understudied allergic disease especially in developing nations which make the accuracy of the data from these areas more difficult to interpret.


Epidemiology Prevalence Risk factors Allergic disease 



Allergic conjunctivitis


Allergic rhinitis


Atopic dermatitis


  1. Akinbami LJ, Moorman JE, Bailey C, Zahran H, King M, Johnson CA, Liu X. Trends in asthma prevalence, health care use, and mortality in the United States, 2001–2010. NCHS Data Brief. 2012;94:1.Google Scholar
  2. Allen KJ, Koplin JJ. Prospects for prevention of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4(2):215–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen KJ, Koplin JJ, Ponsonby AL, Gurrin LC, Wake M, Vuillermin P, Martin P, Matheson M, Lowe A, Robinson M, Tey D, Vitamin D. Insufficiency is associated with challenge-proven food allergy in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131(4):1109–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Anandan C, Nurmatov U, Sheikh A. Omega 3 and 6 oils for primary prevention of allergic disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy. 2009;64(6):840–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkins D, Bock SA. Fatal anaphylaxis to foods: epidemiology, recognition, and prevention. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2009;9(3):179–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Baig R, Ali AW, Ali T, Ali A, Shah MN, Sarfaraz A, Ahmad K. Prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis in school children of Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60(5):371.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauchau V, Durham SR. Prevalence and rate of diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in Europe. Eur Respir J. 2004;24(5):758–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bielory L. Allergic and immunologic disorders of the eye. Part II: ocular allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106(6):1019–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Black PN, Sharpe S. Dietary fat and asthma: is there a connection? Eur Respir J. 1997;10(1):6–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Blázquez AB, Berin MC. Microbiome and food allergy. Transl Res. 2017;179:199–203.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonini S. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Allergy. 2004;59(s78):71–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bousquet J, Van Cauwenberge P, Khaltaev N. World Health Organization. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108(5):S147–334.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Broide DH. Allergic rhinitis: pathophysiology. Allergy and asthma proceedings 2010 Sep 1 (Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 370–374). OceanSide Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  14. Brown SJ, Asai Y, Cordell HJ, Campbell LE, Zhao Y, Liao H, Northstone K, Henderson J, Alizadehfar R, Ben-Shoshan M, Morgan K. Loss-of-function variants in the filaggrin gene are a significant risk factor for peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(3):661–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burks AW, Tang M, Sicherer S, Muraro A, Eigenmann PA, Ebisawa M, Fiocchi A, Chiang W, Beyer K, Wood R, Hourihane J. ICON: food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(4):906–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Camargo CA, Clark S, Kaplan MS, Lieberman P, Wood RA. Regional differences in EpiPen prescriptions in the United States: the potential role of vitamin D. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120(1):131–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Chiu CY, Liao SL, Su KW, Tsai MH, Hua MC, Lai SH, Chen LC, Yao TC, Yeh KW, Huang JL. Exclusive or partial breastfeeding for 6 months is associated with reduced milk sensitization and risk of eczema in early childhood: the PATCH Birth Cohort Study. Medicine. 2016;95(15):3–4.Google Scholar
  18. Chaplin DD. 1. Overview of the human immune response. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2006 Feb 1;117(2):S430–5Google Scholar
  19. Cingi C, Cakli H, Us T, Akgün Y, Kezban M, Özudogru E, Cingi E, Özdamar K. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in urban and rural areas of Eskişehir-Turkey. Allergol Immunopathol. 2005;33(3):151–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Civelek E, Sahiner U, Yüksel H, Boz AB, Orahan F, Üner A, Cakir B, Sekerel BE. Prevalence, burden, and risk factors of atopic eczema in schoolchildren aged 10-11 years: a national multicenter study. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2011;21(4):270–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Cummings AJ, Knibb RC, King RM, Lucas JS. The psychosocial impact of food allergy and food hypersensitivity in children, adolescents and their families: a review. Allergy. 2010;65(8):933–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Deng Q, Lu C, Li Y, Sundell J, Norbäck D. Exposure to outdoor air pollution during trimesters of pregnancy and childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema. Environ Res. 2016;150:119–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Dennis RJ, Caraballo L, García E, Rojas MX, Rondon MA, Pérez A, Aristizabal G, Peñaranda A, Barragan AM, Ahumada V, Jimenez S. Prevalence of asthma and other allergic conditions in Colombia 2009–2010: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pulm Med. 2012;12(1):17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Devereux G, Seaton A. Diet as a risk factor for atopy and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115(6):1109–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Dold S, Wjst M, Von Mutius E, Reitmeir P, Stiepel E. Genetic risk for asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Archives of disease in childhood. 1992 Aug 1;67(8):1018–22.Google Scholar
  26. Dotterud CK, Storrø O, Johnsen R, Øien T. Probiotics in pregnant women to prevent allergic disease: a randomized, double-blind trial. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163(3):616–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Du Toit G, Katz Y, Sasieni P, Mesher D, Maleki SJ, Fisher HR, Fox AT, Turcanu V, Amir T, Zadik-Mnuhin G, Cohen A. Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(5):984–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, Bahnson HT, Radulovic S, Santos AF, Brough HA, Phippard D, Basting M, Feeney M, Turcanu V. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(9):803–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eggesbø M, Botten G, Stigum H, Nafstad P, Magnus P. Is delivery by cesarean section a risk factor for food allergy? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112(2):420–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Eriksson J, Ekerljung L, Rönmark E, Dahlén B, Ahlstedt S, Dahlén SE, Lundbäck B. Update of prevalence of self-reported allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms among adults in Sweden. Clin Respir J. 2012;6(3):159–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Fleischer DM, Sicherer S, Greenhawt M, Campbell D, Chan ES, Muraro A, Halken S, Katz Y, Ebisawa M, Eichenfield L, Sampson H. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants. World Allergy Organ J. 2015;8(1):27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Follenweider LM, Lambertino A. Epidemiology of asthma in the United States. Nurs Clin. 2013;48(1):1–0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Garcia-Marcos L, Robertson CF, Ross Anderson H, Ellwood P, Williams HC, Wong GW, ISAAC Phase Three Study Group. Does migration affect asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema prevalence? Global findings from the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(6):1846–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Geraldini M, Neto HJ, Riedi CA, Rosário NA. Epidemiology of ocular allergy and co-morbidities in adolescents. J Pediatr. 2013;89(4):354–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gil F, Amezqueta A, Martinez D, Aznal E, Etayo V, Durá T, Sánchez-Valverde F. Association between caesarean delivery and isolated doses of formula feeding in cow milk allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2017;173(3):147–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gomez-Llorente M, Romero R, Chueca N, Martinez-Cañavate A, Gomez-Llorente C. Obesity and asthma: a missing link. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(7):1490.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Grimshaw KE, Maskell J, Oliver EM, Morris RC, Foote KD, Mills EC, Margetts BM, Roberts G. Diet and food allergy development during infancy: birth cohort study findings using prospective food diary data. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):511–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ho MH, Lee SL, Wong WH, Patrick IP, Lau YL. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Hong Kong children and teens-a population survey. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2012;30(4):275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hourihane JO, Dean TP, Warner JO. Peanut allergy in relation to heredity, maternal diet, and other atopic diseases: results of a questionnaire survey, skin prick testing, and food challenges. BMJ. 1996;313(7056):518–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hu Y, Chen J, Li H. Comparison of food allergy prevalence among Chinese infants in Chongqing, 2009 versus 1999. Pediatr Int. 2010;52(5):820–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huang C, Liu W, Hu Y, Zou Z, Zhao Z, Shen L, Weschler LB, Sundell J. Updated prevalences of asthma, allergy, and airway symptoms, and a systematic review of trends over time for childhood asthma in Shanghai, China. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0121577.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hwang BF, Jaakkola JJ, Lee YL, Lin YC, Guo YL. Relation between air pollution and allergic rhinitis in Taiwanese schoolchildren. Respiratory research. 2006 Dec;7(1):23.Google Scholar
  43. Jarvis D, Burney P. ABC of allergies: the epidemiology of allergic disease. BMJ. 1998;316(7131):607.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jun J, Bielory L, Raizman MB. Vernal conjunctivitis. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am. 2008;28:59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Keet CA, Wood RA, Matsui EC. Personal and parental nativity as risk factors for food sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(1):169–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Kramer MS, Kakuma R. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. In: Protecting infants through human milk. Boston: Springer; 2004. p. 63–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kusunoki T, Morimoto T, Nishikomori R, Yasumi T, Heike T, Fujii T, Nakahata T. Changing prevalence and severity of childhood allergic diseases in Kyoto, Japan, from 1996 to 2006. Allergol Int. 2009;58(4):543–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lack G. Update on risk factors for food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(5):1187–97.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Lee YL, Shaw CK, Su HJ, Lai JS, Ko YC, Huang SL, Sung FC, Guo YL. Climate, traffic-related air pollutants and allergic rhinitis prevalence in middle-school children in Taiwan. European Respiratory Journal. 2003 Jun 1;21(6):964–70.Google Scholar
  50. Lima RG, Pastorino AC, Casagrande RR, Sole D, Leone C, Jacob CM. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in 6–7 years old students from the western districts of São Paulo City, using the standardized questionnaire of the “international study of asthma and allergies in childhood”(ISAAC)-phase IIIB. Clinics. 2007;62(3):225–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lois N, Abdelkader E, Reglitz K, Garden C, Ayres JG. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and eye disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92(10):1304–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Maggi E, Biswas P, Del Prete G, Parronchi P, Macchia D, Simonelli C, Emmi L, De Carli M, Tiri A, Ricci M. Accumulation of Th-2-like helper T cells in the conjunctiva of patients with vernal conjunctivitis. J Immunol. 1991;146(4):1169–74.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Mallol J, Crane J, Von Mutius E, Odhiambo J, Keil U, Stewart A. ISAAC phase three study group. The international study of asthma and allergies in childhood (ISAAC) phase three: a global synthesis. Allergol Immunopathol. 2013;41(2):73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maloney JM, Nowak-Węgrzyn A, Wang J. Children in the New York Inner City have high rates of food allergy and IgE-sensitization to common foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(1):214.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mao D, Tang R, Wu R, Hu H, Sun LJ, Zhu H, Bai X, Han JG. Prevalence trends in the characteristics of patients with allergic asthma in Beijing, 1994 to 2014. Medicine 2017;96(22):1.Google Scholar
  56. Matheson MC, Dharmage SC, Abramson MJ, Walters EH, Sunyer J, de Marco R, Leynaert B, Heinrich J, Jarvis D, Norbäck D, Raherison C. Early-life risk factors and incidence of rhinitis: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Study—an international population-based cohort study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2011 Oct 1;128(4):816–23.Google Scholar
  57. McGowan EC, Keet CA. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the National Health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES) 2007–2010. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(5):1216.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Meltzer EO. Quality of life in adults and children with allergic rhinitis. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2001 Jul 1;108(1):S45–53.Google Scholar
  59. Meltzer EO, Blaiss MS, Derebery MJ, Mahr TA, Gordon BR, Sheth KK, Simmons AL, Wingertzahn MA, Boyle JM. Burden of allergic rhinitis: results from the pediatric allergies in America survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124(3):S43–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Mills EC, Mackie AR, Burney P, Beyer K, Frewer L, Madsen C, Botjes E, Crevel RW, Van Ree R. The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe. Allergy. 2007;62(7):717–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Mitchell EA, Beasley R, Björkstén B, Crane J, García-Marcos L, Keil U. The association between BMI, vigorous physical activity and television viewing and the risk of symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children and adolescents: ISAAC phase three. Clin Exp Allergy. 2013;43(1):73–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Moradi-Lakeh M, El Bcheraoui C, Daoud F, Tuffaha M, Kravitz H, Al Saeedi M, Basulaiman M, Memish ZA, AlMazroa MA, Al Rabeeah AA, Mokdad AH. Prevalence of asthma in Saudi adults: findings from a national household survey, 2013. BMC Pulm Med. 2015;15(1):77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Morgenstern V, Zutavern A, Cyrys J, Brockow I, Gehring U, Koletzko S, Bauer CP, Reinhardt D, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J. Respiratory health and individual estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in a cohort of young children. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64(1):8–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Mullins RJ, Clark S, Katelaris C, Smith V, Solley G, Camargo Jr CA. Season of birth and childhood food allergy in Australia. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011;22(6):583–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Muraro A, Dreborg S, Halken S, Høst A, Niggemann B, Aalberse R, Arshad SH, Berg AV, Carlsen KH, Duschén K, Eigenmann P. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2004;15(4):291–307.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Nathan RA, Meltzer EO, Seiner JC, Storms W. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis in the United States. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 1997 Jun 1;99(6):S808–14.Google Scholar
  67. Nwaru BI, Ahonen S, Kaila M, Erkkola M, Haapala AM, Kronberg-Kippilä C, Veijola R, Ilonen J, Simell O, Knip M, Virtanen SM. Maternal diet during pregnancy and allergic sensitization in the offspring by 5 yrs of age: a prospective cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(1-Part-I):29–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Nwaru BI, Hickstein L, Panesar SS, Muraro A, Werfel T, Cardona V, Dubois AE, Halken S, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Poulsen LK, Roberts G. The epidemiology of food allergy in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy. 2014;69(1):62–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Okada H, Kuhn C, Feillet H, Bach JF. The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;160(1):1–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Osborne NJ, Ukoumunne OC, Wake M, Allen KJ. Prevalence of eczema and food allergy is associated with latitude in Australia. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(3):865–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Osterballe M, Mortz CG, Hansen TK, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. The prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009;20(7):686–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Panek M, Mokros Ł, Pietras T, Kuna P. The epidemiology of asthma and its comorbidities in Poland–health problems of patients with severe asthma as evidenced in the province of Lodz. Respir Med. 2016;112:31–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Patel DA, Holdford DA, Edwards E, Carroll NV. Estimating the economic burden of food-induced allergic reactions and anaphylaxis in the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(1):110–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Pawankar R. Allergic diseases and asthma: a global public health concern and a call to action. World Allergy Organ J. 2014;7(1):12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pawankar R, Baena-Cagnani CE, Bousquet J, Canonica GW, Cruz AA, Kaliner MA, Lanier BQ, Henley K. State of world allergy report 2008: allergy and chronic respiratory diseases. World Allergy Organ J. 2008;1(1):S4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pawankar R, Holgate ST, Canonica GW, Lockey RF, Blaiss MS. White book on allergy. United States of America, World Allergy Organization (WAO); (2013).Google Scholar
  77. Perkin MR, Bader T, Rudnicka AR, Strachan DP, Owen CG. Inter-relationship between rhinitis and conjunctivitis in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and associated risk factors in rural UK children. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0143651.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Plunkett CH, Nagler CR. The influence of the microbiome on allergic sensitization to food. J Immunol. 2017;198(2):581–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Riiser A. The human microbiome, asthma, and allergy. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2015;11(1):35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Roduit C, Frei R, Depner M, Schaub B, Loss G, Genuneit J, Pfefferle P, Hyvärinen A, Karvonen AM, Riedler J, Dalphin JC. Increased food diversity in the first year of life is inversely associated with allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(4):1056–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Rona RJ, Keil T, Summers C, Gislason D, Zuidmeer L, Sodergren E, Sigurdardottir ST, Lindner T, Goldhahn K, Dahlstrom J, McBride D. The prevalence of food allergy: a meta-analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120(3):638–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Saarinen KM, Juntunen-Backman K, Järvenpää AL, Kuitunen P, Lope L, Renlund M, Siivola M, Savilahti E. Supplementary feeding in maternity hospitals and the risk of cow’s milk allergy: a prospective study of 6209 infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;104(2):457–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Sánchez J, Sánchez A, Cardona R. Particular characteristics of atopic eczema in tropical environments. The Tropical Environment Control for Chronic Eczema and Molecular Assessment (TECCEMA) cohort study. Anais brasileiros de dermatologia. 2017;92(2):177–83.Google Scholar
  84. Saulyte J, Regueira C, Montes-Martínez A, Khudyakov P, Takkouche B. Active or passive exposure to tobacco smoking and allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2014;11(3):e1001611.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schwartz DA. Gene-environment interactions and airway disease in children. Pediatrics. 2009;123(Suppl 3):S151–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Sicherer SH. Epidemiology of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(3):594–602.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Sicherer SH, Sampson HA. Food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(2):S116–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Sicherer SH, Furlong TJ, Maes HH, Desnick RJ, Sampson HA, Gelb BD. Genetics of peanut allergy: a twin study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106(1):53–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Sicherer SH, Muñoz-Furlong A, Godbold JH, Sampson HA. US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(6):1322–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Sicherer SH, Allen K, Lack G, Taylor SL, Donovan SM, Oria M. Critical issues in food allergy: a National Academies Consensus Report. Pediatrics. 2017;140(2):e20170194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Silva D, Geromi M, Halken S, Host A, Panesar SS, Muraro A, Werfel T, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Roberts G, Cardona V, Dubois AE. Primary prevention of food allergy in children and adults: systematic review. Allergy. 2014;69(5):581–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Silverberg JI, Simpson EL. Associations of childhood eczema severity: a US population based study. Dermatitis. 2014;25(3):107.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Silverberg JI, Braunstein M, Lee-Wong M. Association between climate factors, pollen counts, and childhood hay fever prevalence in the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(2):463–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Singh K, Axelrod S, Bielory L. The epidemiology of ocular and nasal allergy in the United States, 1988-1994. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(4):778–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Skoner DP. Allergic rhinitis: definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, detection, and diagnosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108(1):S2–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Solé D, Cassol VE, Silva AR, Teche SP, Rizzato TM, Bandim LC, Sarinho ES, Camelo-Nunes IC. Prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema among adolescents living in urban and rural areas in different regions of Brazil. Allergol Immunopathol. 2007;35(6):248–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Soller L, Ben-Shoshan M, Harrington DW, Fragapane J, Joseph L, Pierre YS, Godefroy SB, La Vieille S, Elliott SJ, Clarke AE. Overall prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Canada. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(4):986–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Steinke M, Fiocchi A, Kirchlechner V, Ballmer-Weber B, Brockow K, Hischenhuber C, Dutta M, Ring J, Urbanek R, Terracciano L, Wezel R. Perceived food allergy in children in 10 European nations. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007;143(4):290–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Stiemsma LT, Turvey SE. Asthma and the microbiome@ defining the critical window in early life. Allergy, Asthma Clin Immunol. 2017;13(1):3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Strachan DP. Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. BMJ. 1989;299(6710):1259.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tan HT, Ellis JA, Koplin JJ, Matheson MC, Gurrin LC, Lowe AJ, Martin PE, Dang TD, Wake M, Tang ML, Ponsonby AL. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations do not predict food allergy over and above the risk of food sensitization among infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(5):1211–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Tanaka M, Dogru M, Takano Y, Miyake-Kashima M, Asano-Kato N, Fukagawa K, Tsubota K, Fujishima H. The relation of conjunctival and corneal findings in severe ocular allergies. Cornea. 2004;23(5):464–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Togias A, Cooper SF, Acebal ML, Assa’ad A, Baker JR, Beck LA, Block J, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Chan ES, Eichenfield LF, Fleischer DM. Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases–sponsored expert panel. World Allergy Organ J. 2017;10(1):1.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Trikha A, Baillargeon JG, Kuo YF, Tan A, Pierson K, Sharma G, Wilkinson G, Bonds RS. Development of food allergies in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with gastric acid suppressive medications. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013;24(6):582–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Untersmayr E, Jensen-Jarolim E. The role of protein digestibility and antacids on food allergy outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(6):1301–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Vassallo MF, Camargo CA. Potential mechanisms for the hypothesized link between sunshine, vitamin D, and food allergy in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(2):217–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Vassallo MF, Banerji A, Rudders SA, Clark S, Camargo CA. Season of birth and food-induced anaphylaxis in Boston. Allergy. 2010;65(11):1492–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Venter C, Pereira B, Voigt K, Grundy J, Clayton CB, Higgins B, Arshad SH, Dean T. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of food hypersensitivity in the first 3 years of life. Allergy. 2008;63(3):354–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Vlaski E, Stavric K, Seckova L, Hristova MK, Isjanovska R. The self-reported density of truck traffic on residential streets and the impact on asthma, hay fever and eczema in young adolescents. Allergol Immunopathol. 2014;42(3):224–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wang J, Wu J, Lai H. Allergic disease epidemiology. In Allergy Bioinformatics 2015 (pp. 15–41). Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  111. Wang M, Xing ZM, Lu C, Ma YX, Yu DL, Yan Z, Wang SW, Yu LS. A common IL-13 Arg130Gln single nucleotide polymorphism among Chinese atopy patients with allergic rhinitis. Hum Genet. 2003;113(5):387–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Waser M, Von Mutius E, Riedler J, Nowak D, Maisch S, Carr D, Eder W, Tebow G, Schierl R, Schreuer M, Braun-Fahrländer C. Exposure to pets, and the association with hay fever, asthma, and atopic sensitization in rural children. Allergy. 2005;60(2):177–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Weinmayr G, Forastiere F, Büchele G, Jaensch A, Strachan DP, Nagel G, ISAAC Phase Two Study Group. Overweight/obesity and respiratory and allergic disease in children: international study of asthma and allergies in childhood (ISAAC) phase two. PloS one. 2014 Dec 4;9(12):e113996.Google Scholar
  114. Wetzig H, Schulz R, Diez U, Herbarth O, Viehweg B, Borte M, Wetzig DM. Associations between duration of breast-feeding, sensitization to hens’ eggs and eczema infantum in one and two year old children at high risk of atopy. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2000;203(1):17–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhang F, Hang J, Zheng B, Su L, Christiani DC. The changing epidemiology of asthma in shanghai, China. J Asthma. 2015;52(5):465–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rayna J. Doll
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nancy I. Joseph
    • 1
  • David McGarry
    • 1
  • Devi Jhaveri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Theodore Sher
    • 2
  • Robert Hostoffer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Adult PulmonaryUniversity Hospitals Cleveland Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Allergy/Immunology Associates, IncMayfield HeightsUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Massoud Mahmoudi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations