Feedback for Enhanced English Language Learning

  • Margaret HeritageEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)


When effectively provided, feedback can be an immensely powerful engine for improving learning. Through illustrations of classroom practice, this chapter examines what constitutes effective feedback in the context of language learning. Specifically, the chapter focuses on how teachers can enhance K-12 English language learner students’ language development during subject matter learning through the provision of feedback in the context of formative assessment. The knowledge and skills teachers need for this purpose is also considered.


Feedback Formative assessment Self-regulation 


  1. Andersson C, Palm T (2017) The impact of formative assessment on student achievement: a study of the effects of changes to classroom practice after a comprehensive professional development programme. Learn Instr 49:92–102Google Scholar
  2. Bailey AL, Heritage M (2008) Formative assessment for literacy, grades K-6: building reading and academic language skills across the curriculum. Corwin, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey AL, Heritage M (2014) The role of language learning progressions in improved instruction and assessment of English language learners. TESOL Q 48(3):480–506Google Scholar
  4. Bailey AL, Heritage M (2018a) Progressing language day by day. Corwin, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey AL, Heritage M (2018b) Self-regulation: the role of language and formative assessment. Harvard Education Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  6. Bangert-Drowns RL, Kulik CLC, Kulik JA, Morgan M (1991) The instructional effect of feedback in test-like events. Rev Educ Res 61(2):213–238Google Scholar
  7. Bitchener J, Ferris DR (2012) Written corrective feedback in second language acquisition and writing. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Black P, Wiliam D (1998) Assessment and classroom learning. Assess Educ Princ Policy Pract 5:7–73Google Scholar
  9. Black P, Harrison C, Lee C, Marshall B, Wiliam D (2003) Assessment for learning: putting it into practice. Open University Press, BerkshireGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown GT, Harris LR (2013) Student self-assessment. In: McMillan JH (ed) The SAGE handbook of research on classroom assessment. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 367–393Google Scholar
  11. Carless D (2015) Excellence in university assessment: learning from award-winning practice. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Carless D, Salter D, Yang M, Lam J (2011) Developing sustainable feedback practices. Stud High Educ 36(4):395–407Google Scholar
  13. Clark I (2012) Formative assessment: assessment is for self-regulated learning. Educ Psychol Rev 24(2):205–249Google Scholar
  14. Crooks TJ (1988) The impact of classroom evaluation practices on students. Rev Educ Res 58:438–481Google Scholar
  15. Dumont HD, Istance D, Benavides F (eds) (2010) The nature of learning: using research to inspire practice. OECD Publishing, Paris. Scholar
  16. Ellis R (2009) Corrective feedback and teacher development. L2 J 1(1):3–18Google Scholar
  17. Hakuta K, Santos M (eds) (2012) Understanding language: commissioned papers on language and literacy issues in the Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards. Stanford University, Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
  18. Hattie J, Timperley H (2007) The power of feedback. Rev Educ Res 77(1):81–112Google Scholar
  19. Heritage M (2016) Assessment for learning: co-regulation in and as student-teacher interactions. In: Laveault D, Allal VL (eds) Assessment for learning: meeting the challenge of implementation. Springer, New York, pp 327–343Google Scholar
  20. Heritage M, Kim J, Vendlinski T, Herman J (2009) From evidence to action: a seamless process in formative assessment? Educ Meas Issues Pract 28(3):24–31Google Scholar
  21. Heritage M, Walqui A, Linquanti R (2015) English language learners and the new standards: developing language, content knowledge, and analytical practices in the classroom. Harvard Education Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  22. Hymes DH (1972) On communicative competence. In: Pride JB, Holmes J (eds) Sociolinguistics: selected readings. Penguin, Harmondsworth, pp 269–293Google Scholar
  23. James JH, Kobe J, Zhao X (2017) Examining the role of trust in shaping children’s approaches to peer dialogue. Teach Coll Rec 119(10):1–34Google Scholar
  24. Jefferson G (1987) On exposed and embedded correction in conversation. In: Button G, Lee JRE (eds) Talk and social organization. Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, pp 86–100Google Scholar
  25. Kingston N, Nash B (2011) Formative assessment: a meta-analysis and a call for research. Educ Meas Issues Pract 30(4):28–37Google Scholar
  26. Kluger AN, DeNisi A (1996) The effects of feedback interventions on performance: a historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychol Bull 119(2): 254–284Google Scholar
  27. Kulhavy RW (1977) Feedback in written instruction. Rev Educ Res 47(2):211–232Google Scholar
  28. Larsen-Freeman D (2013) Transfer of learning transformed. Lang Learn 63(Suppl 1):107–129Google Scholar
  29. Levinson SC (2013) Action formation and ascription. In: Sidnell J, Stivers T (eds) Handbook of conversation analysis. Wiley-Blackwell, Boston, pp 103–130Google Scholar
  30. Narciss S (2008) Feedback strategies for interactive learning tasks. In: Jonassen DH (ed) Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, 3rd edn. Routledge, New York, pp 125–144Google Scholar
  31. National Center for Education Statistics (2014) PISA data explorer.
  32. National Center for Education Statistics (2015) The nation’s report card: 2015 mathematics and reading assessments (NCES 2015–136). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  33. National Research Council (2012) Education for life and work: developing transferable knowledge and skills in the 21st century. The National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  34. Nicholas H, Lightbown PM, Spada N (2001) Recasts as feedback to language learners. Lang Learn 51(4):719–758Google Scholar
  35. Nicol DJ, Macfarlane-Dick D (2006) Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Stud High Educ 31(2):199–218Google Scholar
  36. Otero V (2006) Moving beyond the “get it or don’t” conception of formative assessment. J Teach Educ 57(3):247–255Google Scholar
  37. Paris SG, Paris AH (2001) Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educ Psychol 36(2):89–101Google Scholar
  38. Paris SG, Winograd P (1990) How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. In: Jones BF, Idol L (eds) North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, vol 1. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Hillside: New Jersey, pp 15–51Google Scholar
  39. Pekrun R, Goetz T, Titz W, Perry RP (2002) Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: a program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educ Psychol 37(2): 91–105Google Scholar
  40. Sadler DR (1989) Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instr Sci 18(2): 119–144Google Scholar
  41. Schleppegrell MJ (2004) The language of schooling: a functional linguistics perspective. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, MahwahGoogle Scholar
  42. Shute VJ (2008) Focus on formative feedback. Rev Educ Res 78(1):153–189Google Scholar
  43. Song SH, Keller JM (2001) Effectiveness of motivationally adaptive computer-assisted instruction on the dynamic aspects of motivation. Educ Technol Res Dev 49(2):5–22Google Scholar
  44. Spada N, Lightbown PM (1999) Instruction, first language influence, and developmental readiness in second language acquisition. Mod Lang J 83(1):1–22Google Scholar
  45. Van Maele D, Van Houtte M, Forsyth P (2014) Introduction: trust as a matter of equity and excellence in education. In: Van Maele D, Forsyth P, Van Houtte M (eds) Trust and school life. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  46. Walqui A, van Lier L (2010) Scaffolding the academic success of adolescent English language learners: a pedagogy of promise. WestEd, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  47. Wells G (1994) The complementary contributions of Halliday and Vygotsky to a “language-based theory of learning”. Linguist Educ 6(1):41–90Google Scholar
  48. Wiliam D (2013) Feedback and instructional correctives. In: McMillan JH (ed) The SAGE handbook of research on classroom assessment. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 197–214Google Scholar
  49. Zimmerman BJ (2002) Becoming a self-regulated learner: an overview. Theory Pract 41(2):64–70Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UCLALos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations