Advanced Pretreatment Strategies for Bioenergy Production from Biomass and Biowaste

  • C. Veluchamy
  • Ajay S. Kalamdhad
  • Brandon H. Gilroyed
Living reference work entry


Production of biowaste is increasing day by day, due to the abundant availability of raw materials and their utilities, especially from lignocellulosic-based material that constitutes 50% of the total biomass around the world. The recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose material has become resistant for their degradation and their recovery of valuable material. Many factors like lignin content, crystallinity of cellulose, and particle size limit the digestibility of hemicellulose and cellulose present in the lignocellulose material. To overcome the bottleneck, several pretreatment strategies have been employed to diminish the rate-limiting steps. They are generally classified as physical, chemical, and biological pretreatment. The physical pretreatments include mechanical (comminution, ultrasound, mechanical jet, high-pressure homogenizer), and thermal pretreatments (liquid hot water, autoclave, electrohydrolysis, microwave oven). The chemical pretreatments include acid, alkali, organosolv, wet oxidation, and ozonolysis pretreatment. The biological pretreatments (fungi, microbial consortia, enzyme pretreatment) or combined pretreatments (thermochemical or alkali thermochemical) are often employed nowadays. This chapter reviews the process description, mode of action, and challenges of several pretreatments. This chapter also discusses the future research needs of advanced pretreatment strategies for bioenergy production from biomaterial.


Lignocellulose Pretreatment strategies Bioenergy Limiting factors Biodegradation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Veluchamy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ajay S. Kalamdhad
    • 1
  • Brandon H. Gilroyed
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia
  2. 2.School of Environmental ScienceUniversity of Guelph Ridgetown CampusRidgetownCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

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