Water Quality Assessment of an Unexplored Tropical Freshwater System in Thiruvananthapuram, India: A Multivariate Statistical Approach

  • Anila P. AjayanEmail author
  • Jan W. Rijstenbil
  • K. G. Ajit Kumar
Living reference work entry


Water is the life on earth. To sustain life water should be carefully managed in its natural habitat. Several statistical methods such as multivariate analysis of data helps within theinterpretation of complicated data matrices to understand the water quality and ecological status of the studied systems that permits the identification of all the possible factors and sources that strongly influences the water systems. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) are a reliable environmetric techniques used in water quality analysis than the traditional comparison of physico chemical parameters. It gives better understanding of the water quality and ecological status of the aquatic ecosystem that is studied. This provides the identification of all the possible factors that have an influence on the studied aquatic body. Thus, multivariate analysis which includes CA and PCA offers reliable tool in water resource management. The water quality of Thiruvananthapuram Museum Lake was assessed and the results obtained based on the PCA points out a strong influence of Nitrates, Nitrites and Phosphates in water quality for the study period. Based on the CA results the sampling stations showed a clear difference in water quality. The analysis of the factor loadings showed that Water Temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Calcium, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Magnesium, Nitrite, Nitrate, Sodium and Potassium are the major principal components in Museum Lake water. The present analysis of hydrographical parameters reflects the quality of the lake water and suggests the need for proper management of the aquatic ecosystems for conserving and preserving the quality of water and to protect that system from allochthonous and autochthonous materials from further deterioration.


Museum lake Environmetric techniques PCA Autochthonous Water quality 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anila P. Ajayan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jan W. Rijstenbil
    • 2
  • K. G. Ajit Kumar
    • 3
  1. 1.Environmental Biology Division, Department of BotanyMahatma Gandhi College, University of KeralaThiruvananthapuramIndia
  2. 2.AE3 ConsultancyYersekeThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Kerala State Biodiversity BoardThiruvananthapuramIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

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