Removal of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds from Contaminated Water and Wastewater Using Biochar as Low-Cost Adsorbents, An Overview

  • Adel Al-GheethiEmail author
  • Efaq Noman
  • Radin Mohamed
  • Mohd Adib Mohammad Razi
  • M. K. Amir Hashim
Living reference work entry


Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have received high attention during the last few years due to their ability to persist for long time in the environment as well as their role in increasing the antimicrobial resistance among the floral bacteria in the nature. Many of the technologies have been investigated and applied to remove those compounds from the contaminated water and wastewater. The most common technology depends on the oxidation process which leads to degrade these compounds to be in inactive form. However, the oxidation process has some challenges which lie in the presence of secondary products and toxic by-products. The adsorption process is the best alternative technology where no energy is required and no toxic by-products are generated, and the process leads to separate the pollutants from the water and wastewater. In this chapter, the adsorption of PhACs by low-cost materials such as biochar and microorganisms is discussed.


Biochar Bacteria Adsorptive capacity Efficiency 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adel Al-Gheethi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Efaq Noman
    • 2
  • Radin Mohamed
    • 1
  • Mohd Adib Mohammad Razi
    • 1
  • M. K. Amir Hashim
    • 1
  1. 1.Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environment Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Parit RajaMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied Science and TechnologyUniversity Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)PagohMalaysia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

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