Nickel Nanoparticles: Bio-synthesis Using Citrus Limon Leaves and its Characterization

Living reference work entry


Today the global emphasis lies in developing a facile, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method for metallic nanoparticle synthesis. Leaves of Citrus Limon were studied for its applicability in the vegetable synthesis of nanostructured nickel particles (NiNPs). A mathematical model was designed based on response surface methodology for optimizing the process parameters. The results were analyzed using ANOVA. The nanoparticle formation was evaluated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, laser diffraction method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and Fourier- transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. TEM analysis revealed that the particles were preferably spherical, and the particle size results showed good agreement with the size calculated from XRD.


NiNPs Citrus limon leaves Green synthesis Response surface methodology 



Authors are thankful to World Bank-funded TEQIP-II and FIST-DST project, Govt. of India, for making available the machinery for this research project.


  1. Begum NA, Mondal S, Basu S, Laskar RA, Mandal D (2009) Biogenic synthesis of Au and Ag nanoparticles using aqueous solutions of Black Tea leaf extracts. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 71(1):113–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chandran SP, Chaudhary M, Pasricha R, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2006) Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloevera plant extract. Biotechnol Prog 22(2):577–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen H, Wang J, Huang D, Chen X, Zhu J, Sun D, Huang J, Li Q (2014) Plant-mediated synthesis of size-controllable Ni nanoparticles with alfalfa extract. Mater Lett 122:166–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dubey M, Bhadauria S, Kushwah BS (2009) Green synthesis of nanosilver particles from extract of Eucalyptus hybrida (safeda) leaf. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 4(3):537–543Google Scholar
  5. El-Naggar NE, Abdelwahed NA, Darwesh OM (2014) Fabrication of biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102 as eco-friendly nanofactory. J Microbiol Biotechnol 24(4):453–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Iravani S (2011) Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Green Chem 13(10):2638–2650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jiang H, Manolache S, Wong ACL, Denes FS (2004) Plasma-enhanced deposition of silver nanoparticles onto polymer and metal surfaces for the generation of antimicrobial characteristics. J Appl Polym Sci 93(3):1411–1422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kale RD, Kane PB (2017) Colour removal using nanoparticles. Text Cloth Sustain 2(1):4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kale RD, Kane PB (2018) Decolourization by PVP stabilized Fe-Ni nanoparticles of reactive black 5 dye. J Environ Chem Eng 6(5):5961–5969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kale RD, Kane PB (2019) Colour removal of phthalocyanine based reactive dye by nanoparticles. Groundw Sustain Dev 8:309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kale RD, Kane P, Phulaware N (2014) Decolourization of CI reactive black 5 by PVP stabilized nickel nanoparticles. Int J Eng Sci Innovative Technol 3(2):109–117Google Scholar
  12. Kale RD, Barwar S, Kane P, Contractor A (2018) Betel leaves mediated green synthesis of nickel nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization. Int J Eng Adv Technol 7(3):89–92Google Scholar
  13. Kane PB, Jagtap P, Kale RD, Rao AR (2019) A facile method for honey mediated bio-synthesis of nickel nanoparticles and its characterisation. Adv Nat Sci Nanosci Nanotechnol 10(3):035008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krishnaraj C, Jagan EG, Rajasekar S, Selvakumar P, Kalaichelvan PT, Mohan NJCSBB (2010) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 76(1):50–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Leela A, Vivekanandan M (2008) Tapping the unexploited plant resources for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Afr J Biotechnol 7(17):3162–3165Google Scholar
  16. Li S, Shen Y, Xie A, Yu X, Qiu L, Zhang L, Zhang Q (2007) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Capsicum annuum L. extract. Green Chem 9(8):852–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lu Z, Huang Y, Zhang L, Xia K, Deng Y, He N (2015) Preparation of gold nanorods using 1, 2, 4-trihydroxybenzene as a reducing agent. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 15(8):6230–6235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mariam AA, Kashif M, Arokiyaraj S, Bououdina M, Sankaracharyulu MGV, Jayachandran M, Hashim U (2014) Bio-synthesis of NiO and Ni nanoparticles and their characterization. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 9(3):1007–1019Google Scholar
  19. Martinez-Castanon GA, Nino-Martinez N, Martinez-Gutierrez F, Martinez-Mendoza JR, Ruiz F (2008) Synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles with different sizes. J Nanopart Res 10(8):1343–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mohanpuria P, Rana NK, Yadav SK (2008) Biosynthesis of nanoparticles: technological concepts and future applications. J Nanopart Res 10(3):507–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Prabhu YT, Rao KV, Sai VS, Pavani T (2017) A facile biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles: a micro-structural and antibacterial activity investigation. J Saudi Chem Soc 21(2):180–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pugazhenthiran N, Anandan S, Kathiravan G, Prakash NKU, Crawford S, Ashok Kumar M (2009) Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Bacillus sp. J Nanopart Res 11:1811–1815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ramesh P, Rajendran A, Meenakshisundaram M (2014) Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using flower extract Cassia auriculata. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2(1):41–45Google Scholar
  24. Saif S, Tahir A, Chen Y (2016) Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles and their environmental applications and implications. Nano 6(11):209Google Scholar
  25. Senge MO, Ryan AA, Letchford KA, MacGowan SA, Mielke T (2014) Chlorophylls, symmetry, chirality, and photosynthesis. Symmetry 6:781–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shankar SS, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2004) Rapid synthesis of au, ag, and bimetallic Au core–Ag shell nanoparticles using neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth. J Colloid Interface Sci 275(2):496–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shukla VK, Pandey S, Pandey AC (2010) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract. In: AIP conference proceedings, vol 1276, no 1. AIP, Guwahati, Assam (India), pp 43–49Google Scholar
  28. Singhal G, Bhavesh R, Kasariya K, Sharma AR, Singh RP (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaf extract and screening its antimicrobial activity. J Nanopart Res 13(7):2981–2988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Song JY, Kim BS (2009) Rapid biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extracts. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 32(1):79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang WX (2003) Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: an overview. J Nanopart Res 5(3–4):323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhang LD, Fang XS (2008) Controlled growth and characterization methods of semiconductor nanomaterials. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 8(1):149–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fibres and Textile Processing TechnologyInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Polymer Engineering and Surface Coatings TechnologyInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations