Integrated Assessment of Environmental Factors: Risks to Human Health

  • Gustavo Marques da Costa
  • Michele dos Santos Gomes da Rosa
Living reference work entry


Air pollution can already be considered an environmental health problem because it transcends physical barriers. However, it is necessary to establish the limits on the human health effects, and these should be evaluated. In general, the effects of polluting gases on human health are closely associated with their solubility in the walls of the respiratory system. Among the factors that can influence the air quality are geographical location, topography, and local climatic conditions, mainly with respect to the constancy, intensity, and direction of the winds. Therefore, the choice of a reliable and accurate air quality method is important because its results can result in effective actions to control pollutants and take collective actions to keep their concentrations at acceptable levels for human and environmental health.


Air pollution Respiratory diseases Environmental health Occupational risk 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo Marques da Costa
    • 1
  • Michele dos Santos Gomes da Rosa
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidade FeevaleNovo HamburgoBrazil
  2. 2.Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul – PUCRSPorto AlegreBrazil

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

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