Advertisement

Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil Using Waste Glass

  • Niraj Singh Parihar
  • Vijay Kumar Garlapati
  • Rajiv GangulyEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Rising population and shortage of land have led to increased generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in urban areas in India. Physicochemical characterization of such MSW has shown that glass is an important component of such wastes accounting for about 2–4% of the overall waste generated. Though percentage of the waste glass generated is small, in actual the volume of glass disposed of in the open landfills is sufficiently high particularly in Tier-I and Tier-II cities in India which is not only a non-decomposable material but also creates serious handling problems. Black cotton soils are highly abundant in countries like Australia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Mexico, Nigeria, China, and India. In India alone, it covers more than 20% of the geographical area of the country with dominance in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu. Application of waste glass in cement industry and for construction of pavements has already been studied, but very limited study is available on the application of waste glass on the properties of black cotton soil. Since black cotton soils have poor shear strength and are prone to swelling and shrinkage when exposed to increase and decrease in moisture content, they pose severe engineering problems such as foundation heaving, unequal settlements, and cracks in super structures post construction as they contain high clay content which imparts a low strength to the soil and leads to unfavorable volume changes. For these reasons, certain ground improvement techniques such as soil stabilization or reinforcements are required for improving the behavior and the reliability of the black cotton soil. Since waste glass consists of a high fraction of siliceous material, they can be utilized for stabilizing such soils. The book chapter presents the results of utilizations of such waste glass in different proportions and thereby optimization of usage of waste glass for stabilization of black cotton soil by checking the engineering properties of the stabilized soil like Atterberg limits, compaction parameters, CBR values, and swelling potential. Experimental analysis showed that addition of waste glass leads to an increase in plastic limit and shrinkage limit of black cotton soil by 8% and 15%, respectively, after which a decreasing trend was observed. Liquid limit continuously decreased with the addition of waste glass. Further, the increment in the maximum dry density of the soil and decrease in the optimum moisture content of the soil have been observed with increase in the amount of glass content till 9% after which the trends are reversed. Overall, it can be concluded from the study that waste glass seems to be a suitable material for the stabilization of highly expansive soils such as black cotton soil as it will not only improve the soil behavior for construction but will also reduce the environmental pollution in the form of land quality degradation.

References

  1. Alhassan M (2008) Potentials of rice husk ash for soil stabilization. AU JT 11(4):246–250Google Scholar
  2. Brooks RM (2009) Soil stabilization with flyash and rice husk ash. Int J Res Rev Appl Sci 1(3):209–217Google Scholar
  3. Canakci H, Kaki AA, Celik F (2016) Stabilization of clay with waste soda lime glass powder. Proc Eng (Elsevier) 161:600–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen FH (1975) Foundations on expansive soils. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  5. Glass Packaging Institute (1999) Americans continue to recycle more than one in three glass containers. Available from: http://www.gpi.org/98rate.html. 15 Jan 2016
  6. Heeralal M, Praveen GV (2011) A study on effect of fiber on cement kiln dust (CKD) stabilized soil. J Eng Res Stud 2(4):173–177Google Scholar
  7. Holtz WG, Gibbs HJ (1956) Engineering properties of expansive clays. Trans Am Soc Civ Eng 121:641–677Google Scholar
  8. Ikara IA, Kundiri AM, Mohammed A (2015) Effects of waste glass on waste characteristics of cement stabilized expansive soil. Am J Eng Res 4(11):33–41Google Scholar
  9. IS: 1498 (1970) Indian standard classification and identification of soils for general engineering purposes. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (Reaffirmed 1987)Google Scholar
  10. IS: 2720 (Part IV) (1985) Grain size analysis (2006)Google Scholar
  11. IS: 2720 (Part V) (1985) Determination of liquid and plastic limit (2006)Google Scholar
  12. IS: 2720 (Part VI) (1972) Determination of shrinkage factors (2001)Google Scholar
  13. IS: 2720 (Part VII) (1980) Determination of compaction parameters (2011)Google Scholar
  14. IS: 2720 (Part XL) (1977) Determination of free swell index of soils (1985)Google Scholar
  15. IS: 2720 (Part XVI) (1987) Laboratory determination of CBR (2002)Google Scholar
  16. IS: 4332 (Part III) (1967) Test for determination of moisture content and dry density relation for stabilized soil mixtures (2010)Google Scholar
  17. Joe MA, Rajesh AM (2015) Soil stabilization using industrial waste and lime. IJSRET 4(7):799–805Google Scholar
  18. Kalkan E (2006) Utilization of red mud as a stabilization material for the preparation of clay liners. J Eng Geol 87(3–4):220–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kharade AS et al (2014) Waste product bagasse ash from sugar industry can be used as stabilizing material for expansive soils. IJRET 3(3):506–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kulkarni VR, Patil GK (2014) Experimental study of stabilization of black cotton soil by using slag and glass fibers. J Civil Eng Environ Technol 1(2):107–112Google Scholar
  21. Kumar BS, Preethi TV (2014) Behavior of clayey soil stabilized with rice husk ash & lime. Int J Eng Trends Technol 11(1):44–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lavanya C, Srirama Rao A (2017) Study of swelling potential for copper slag cushion laid over expansive soil bed. Indian Geotechnical J (Springer) 47(3):280–285.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-017-0227-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Manimaran S et al (2015) Role of additives in expansive soil to improve stabilization performance using biomass silica. IJSRD 3(4):407–412Google Scholar
  24. Olufowobi J, Ogundoju A, Michael B, Aderinlewo O (2014) Clay soil stabilization using powdered glass. J Eng Sci Technol 9(5):541–558Google Scholar
  25. Oriola F, Moses G (2010) Groundnut Shell ash stabilization of black cotton soil. Electron J Geotech Eng 15(Bund E):415–428Google Scholar
  26. Pallavi P et al (2016) Study of bagasse ash and cement stabilized marshy soil. IJIRSET 5(1):651–659Google Scholar
  27. Paul A, Anumol VS, Moideen F, Jiksymol KJ, Abraham A (2014) Studies on improvement of clayey soil using egg Shell powder and quarry dust. Int J Eng Res Appl 4(4):55–63Google Scholar
  28. Prakash K, Sridharan A (2004) Free swell ratio and clay mineralogy of fine grained soils. Geotech Test J 27(2):220–225Google Scholar
  29. Rao DK, Pranav PRT, Anusha M (2011) Stabilization of expansive soil using Rice husk ash, lime and gypsum-an experimental study. Int J Eng Sci Technol 3(11):8077–8079Google Scholar
  30. Sabat AK, Nanda RP (2011) Effect of marble dust on strength and durability of rice husk ash stabilized expansive soil. Int J Civil Struct Eng 1(4):939–948. ISSN:0976–4399Google Scholar
  31. Santosh, Vishwanath CS (2015) Stabilization of expansive soil by using wheat husk ash and granulated blast furnace slag. Int J Sci Res Dev 3(4):2006–2018Google Scholar
  32. Seward TP III, Vascott T (2005) High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling. The American Ceramic Society, Westerville. ISBN:1-57498-225-7Google Scholar
  33. Sharma AK, Shivapulliah PV (2012) Improvement of strength of expansive soil with waste granulated blast furnace slag. ASCE, special edition international conference of Geo Congress, Oakland, pp 3920–3928Google Scholar
  34. Shayan A, Xu A (2004) Value added utilization of waste glass in concrete. J Cem Concr Res 34(1):81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shukla RP, Parihar NS (2016) Stabilization of black cotton soil using microfine slag. J Inst Eng (India): Ser A 97(3):299–306. ISSN:2250-2149. (Springer Publication)Google Scholar
  36. Shukla RP, Parihar N, Tiwari RP, Agrawal BK (2014) Black cotton soil modification using sea salt. Electron J Geotech Eng 19(Bund Y):8807–8816Google Scholar
  37. Sridharan A, Prakash K (2004) Free swell ratio and clay mineralogy of fine grained soil. Geotech Test J 27(2):220–225Google Scholar
  38. Sridharan A, Rao SM, Murthy NS (1985) Free swell index of soil: a need for redefinition. Indian Geotechnical J 15(2):94–99Google Scholar
  39. Subash K et al (2016) Stabilization of black cotton soil using glass and plastic granules. Int J Eng Res Technol 5(4):480–483Google Scholar
  40. US Environmental Protection Agency (2005) Municipal solid waste generation, recycling, and disposal in the United States: facts and figures for 2005. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/nonhw/muncpl/pubs/msw05rpt.pdf. 15 Jan 2016
  41. Wu S, Yang W, Xue Y (2003) Preparation and properties of glass-asphalt concrete. Key laboratory for silicate material science and engineering of Ministry of Education. Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)Google Scholar
  42. Yadu L, Tripathi RK (2013) Stabilization of soft soil with granulated blast furnace slag and fly ash. Int J Res Eng Technol 2(2):115–119. ISSN:2319-1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yadu L, Tripathi RK, Singh D (2011) Comparison of fly ash and Rice husk ash stabilized black cotton soil. Int J Earth Sci Eng 4(6):42–45. ISSN:0974-5904Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niraj Singh Parihar
    • 1
  • Vijay Kumar Garlapati
    • 2
  • Rajiv Ganguly
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringJaypee University of Information TechnologyWaknaghatIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology and BioinformaticsJaypee University of Information TechnologyWaknaghatIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations