Biotechnological Approach for Mitigation Studies of Effluents of Automobile Industries

  • N. N. Bandela
  • P. N. Puniya
  • Geetanjali Kaushik
Living reference work entry


Automobile industry effluents are highly contaminated with various heavy metals like Zn, Ca, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Fe, paint particles, coolants, phosphate coating, and oil and grease. The discharge of such toxic effluents without any treatment contaminates natural water bodies. To study the efficiency of biological treatment of the feeding effluent of automobile industries, two pilot plants were set up at a lab scale: one was the conventional bioreactor plant and another was the novel bioreactor with modified design concept. In the novel bioreactor, inside baffles are constructed, and two impellers are used: one at the surface and the other at the bottom. After the comparative study, it was finally concluded that the novel bioreactor efficiency was two times more than the conventional bioreactor. Hence, it is recommended that novel bioreactors can play a vital role in treating the effluent of automobile industries. The microbe of the activated sludge helps to adsorb various heavy metals from the effluent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found abundant in the effluent of automobile industries.


Treatment Automobile industry Heavy metals Bioreactor Reduction 


  1. Abbas A (2006) Biosorption of some heavy metal ions by local isolate of Zoogloea ramigera. Int J Environ Tech Manag 6(5):497–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allard AS, Neilson AH (1997) Bioremediation of organic waste sites; a critical review of microbiological aspects. Int Biodeter Biodegr 39:253–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson JG, Smith (1987) Composting. In: Sidwick JM, Holdom RS (eds) Biotechnology of waste treatment and exploitation. Ellis Horwood, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrade L, Gonzalez AM, Araujo FV, Paranthos R (2003) Flow cytometry assessment of bacterioplankton in tropical marine environments. J Microbiol Methods 55:841–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ansola G, Gonzalez JM, Cortijo R, De Luis E (2003) Experimental and full-scale pilot plant constructed wetlands for municipal wastewaters treatment. Ecol Eng 21:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Babich IV, Moulijn JA (2003) Science and technology of novel processes for deep desulfurization of oil refinery streams; a review. Fuel 82:607–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ben-Amotz A, Tornabene TG (1985) Chemical profile of selected species of macroalgae with emphasis on lipids. J Phycol 21:72–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bojarajan A, Arumugam M, Subramanian VV, Sivasubramanian V (2007) Heavy metal tolerance of the micro algae. Scenedesmus acuminatus and Ankistrodesmus convolutus – A Laboratory study. Pollut Res 27(1):77–82Google Scholar
  9. Bozkurt MK, Ozcelik T, Saydam L, Kutluay L (2008) A case of isolated aspergillosis of the maxillary sinus. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg 18(1):53–55Google Scholar
  10. Brief Industrial Profile of Aurangabad District (2013–2014) Ministry of micro small and medium enterprises. Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Brindle K, Stephenson T (1996) The application of membrane biological reactors for the treatment of wastewaters. Biotechnol Bioeng 49:601–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Castanier LM, Brigham WE (2003) Upgrading of crude oil via in situ combustion. J Pet Sci Eng 39:125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chang IS, Jang JK, Gil GC, Kim HJ, Cho BW, Kim BH (2004) Continuous determination of biochemical oxygen demand using microbial fuel cell type biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron 19:607–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crundwell FK (2003) How do bacteria interact with minerals? Hydrometallurgy 71:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Curds CR, Cockburn A (1970) Protozoa in biological sewage-treatment processes—I. A survey of the protozoan fauna of British percolating filters and activated-sludge plants. Water Res 4:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Curtin ME (1983) Microbial mining and metal recovery. Biotechnology 1:228–235Google Scholar
  17. Das N, Vimala R, Karthika P (2008) Biosorption of heavy metals – an overview. Indian J Biotechnol 7:159–169Google Scholar
  18. Davies G (2003) Materials for automobile bodies. Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam, p 157Google Scholar
  19. Degarmo EP, Black JT, Kohser RA (2003) Materials and processes in manufacturing, 9th edn. Wiley, Upper Saddle River, p 793Google Scholar
  20. DeLeo PC, Ehrlich HL (1994) Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300 in batch and continuous cultures. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 40:756–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dvorak DH, Hedin RS, Edenborn HM, McIntire PE (1992) Treatment of metal-contaminated water using bacterial sulfate reduction: results from pilot-scale reactors. Biotechnol Bioeng 40:609–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ganguli A, Tripathi AK (2002) Bioremediation of toxic chromium from electroplating effluent by chromate-reducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa A2Chr in two bioreactors. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 58:416–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gonzalez AR, Ndung'u K, Flegal AR (2005) Natural occurrence of hexavalent chromium in the aromas red sands aquifer, California. Environ Sci Technol 39(15):5505–5511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hammouda O, Gaber A, Abdelraouf N (2002) Microalgae & wastewater treatment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 31:205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kapoor A, Viraraghavan T (1995) Fungal biosorption- an alternative treatment option for heavy metal bearing wastewater: a review. Bioresour Technol 53(3):195–206Google Scholar
  26. Kong Y, Xia Y, Nielsen JL, Nielsen PH (2007) Structure and function of the microbial community in a full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal plant. Microbiology 153:4061–4073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Joseph K, Nagendran R (2004) Essentials of environmental studies. Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, pp 123–137Google Scholar
  28. Liu Y, Tay JH (2001) Strategy for minimization of excess sludge production from the activated sludge process. Biotechnol Adv 19:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McLean J, Beveridge TJ (2001) Chromate reduction by a pseudomonad isolated from a site contaminated with chromated copper arsenate. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:1076–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Metcaff and Eddy (2001) Wastewater engineering treatment disposal reuse, 3rd edn. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  31. Ray SA, Ray MK (2009) Bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity-with special reference to chromium. Al Ameen J Med Sci 2(2 Special):57–63. ISSN:0974–1143Google Scholar
  32. Rubin H (2001) Feasibility of on-site bioremediation of loam soil contaminated by diesel oil. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 36(8):1549–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Seviour RJ, Mino T, Onuki M (2003) The microbiology of biological phosphorus removal in activated sludge systems. FEMS Microbiol Rev 27:99–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Utgikar V, Chen BY, Tabak HH, Bishop DF, Govind R (2000) Treatment of acid mine drainage: I. Equilibrium biosorption of zinc and copper on non-viable activated sludge. Int Biodeter Biodegr 46:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Volesky B (1990) Removal and recovery of heavy metals by biosorption. In: Biosorption of heavy metals. CRC Press, Boston, pp 7–43Google Scholar
  36. Volesky B, Holan ZR (1995) Biosorption of heavy metals. Biotechnol Prog 11:235–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. N. Bandela
    • 1
  • P. N. Puniya
    • 1
  • Geetanjali Kaushik
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesDr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada UniversityAurangabadIndia
  2. 2.MGM’s Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College, Mahatma Gandhi MissionAurangabadIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations