Techniques for Remediation of Paper and Pulp Mill Effluents: Processes and Constraints

  • Smita Chaudhry
  • Rashmi Paliwal
Living reference work entry


Economic development of a nation is linked to industrialization, but should not take place at the expense of environmental degradation. The demand for paper and cardboard in packaging industries is continuously on increase. However, paper industry is extremely water intensive and also an obnoxious polluter of the environment, thereby being categorized under the red category of pollution control boards. Pulp and paper mill effluents consist of not only lignin and other naturally occurring polymers but also many xenobiotic compounds (chlorinated lignins, resin acids and phenols, dioxins, furans, chlorophenols, adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), extractable organic halogens (EOXs), polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, plasticizers, etc.), which can cause severe toxicity to aquatic life by bioaccumulation and may lead to biomagnification in food chains. Salt-rich black liquor can also deteriorate the soil structure, increase soil salinity, and cause nutrient imbalance in crops when used for irrigation without any prior treatment. Hence, appropriate treatment of this liquor prior to discharge into the environment is crucial. Although conventional treatments are quite effective in decolorization of paper mill effluents, all have severe setbacks such as high cost of treatment or unreliability in operation. Thus, this chapter deals with the recent developments in the technologies for treatment of wastewater generated from paper and pulp industries. Some of these include use of environmental biological agents with their enhanced enzymatic systems and new materials for cell immobilization that have received considerable attention in the recent years. The processes related to these technologies, their economic benefits, and constraints if any will be discussed.


Black liquor Hardwood Softwood Agro-residues Color Lignin Chlorinated xenobiotic Resin acids Pulping Pulp Kraft process Sulfate process Sulfite process Chemical recovery Bleaching Decolorization Washing of pulp Recovery Clarification Conventional treatments Biological treatment Lagooning Biocatalyst Depolymerization Enzymes Extracellular enzymes Lignin peroxidase Laccase Manganese peroxidase Glutathione S-transferases Dioxygenases Monooxygenases Phenol oxidases Xylanase Versatile peroxidase Accessory enzymes Bioreactors Biofilm Sequential bioreactor Immobilization Nano-biotechnology Nanomaterials Enzyme immobilization Biomolecules Magnetic support 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Smita Chaudhry
    • 1
  • Rashmi Paliwal
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental StudiesKurukshetra UniversityKurukshetraIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

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