Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater and the Source Mineral Releasing Fluoride in Groundwater of Indo-Gangetic Alluvium, India

  • Abhishek SaxenaEmail author
Living reference work entry


The problem of high fluoride contaminated groundwater is one of the major drinking water issues of the world. This problem is not only affecting the under developed/developing nations but also adversely impacting the most developed nations. Drinking fluoride contaminated water leads to a very painful disease called fluorosis, which is noncurable and may be fatal in later stage. Although minor values of fluoride in our food intake is necessary for the dental health, if it is consumed beyond the permissible limit then it may cause serious damage to our teeth, muscles, and bones. The fluoride content in groundwater is generally related with hard rock terrains but in last few decades it had been widely reported from the alluvial plains. The Indo-Gangetic Alluvium, which is one of the largest alluvial plains of the world, is also severely affected by this issue. Thus, a detailed study was done in this area to decipher the reasons for the release of fluoride into the ground water as there is no hard rocks reported in the nearby areas, and it was suspected that this fluoride is leaching from sandy or clayey soils. The study includes the mineralogical identification of various minerals found in the sediments. The probable mineral releasing the fluoride in the groundwater of the affected area was identified from the sand fraction. Interestingly, the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA values) analyzed for the sediment samples confirmed the various rate of weathering active in the area, and the minerals were in the various phases of alteration. One such mineral was identified as biotite which was under the process of alteration into chlorite and was the main reason for releasing the fluoride into the ground water.


Indo-Gangetic Alluvium Fluoride Content Biotite Unnao District Central Alluvial Plain 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Civil EngineeringSri Ramswaroop Memorial UniversityBarabankiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

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