Advertisement

Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life, and Job Satisfaction

  • Nick DrydakisEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

For trans people (i.e., people whose gender is not the same as the sex they were assigned at birth), evidence suggests that transitioning (i.e., the steps a trans person may take to live in the gender with which they identify) positively affects extraversion, ability to cope with stress, optimism about the future, positivity towards life, self-reported health, social relations, self-esteem, body image, enjoyment of tasks, personal performance, job rewards, and relations with colleagues. These relationships are found to be enhanced by gender affirmation and support from family members, peers, schools and workplaces, stigma prevention programs, coping intervention strategies, socioeconomic conditions, antidiscrimination policies, and positive actions. Also important are legislation including the ability to change one’s sex on government identification documents without having to undergo sex reassignment surgery, accessible and affordable transitioning resources, hormone therapy, surgical treatments, high-quality surgical techniques, adequate preparation and mental health support before and during transitioning, and proper follow-up care. Societal marginalization, family rejection, violations of human and political rights in health care, employment, housing and legal systems, gendered spaces, and internalization of stigma can negatively affect trans people’s well-being and integration in societies. The present study highlights that although transitioning itself can bring well-being adjustments, a transphobic environment may result in adverse well-being outcomes. Policy makers can learn that policies to facilitate trans people’s transition and create cultures of inclusion in different settings, such as schools, workplaces, and health-care services, may help to improve societal well-being and allow the community to develop their potential and to minimize misery.

References

  1. Ainsworth T, Spiegel J (2010) Quality of life of individuals with and without facial feminization surgery or gender reassignment surgery. Qual Life Res 19(7):1019–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Avey JB, Reichard RJ, Luthans F, Mhatre KH (2011) Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Hum Resour Dev Q 22(2):127–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azanzaa G, Moriano JA, Molero F (2013) Authentic leadership and organizational culture as drivers of employees’ job satisfaction. J Work Organ Psychol 29(2):45–50Google Scholar
  4. Bailey L, Ellis SJ, McNeil J (2014) Suicide risk in the UK trans population and the role of gender transition in decreasing suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Ment Health Rev J 19(4):209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bamford M, Wong CA, Laschinger H (2012) The influence of authentic leadership and areas of work life on work engagement of registered nurses. J Nurs Manag 21(3):529–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bar MA, Jarus T, Wada M, Rechtman L, Noy E (2016) Male-to-female transitions: implications for occupational performance, health, and life satisfaction. Can J Occup Ther 83(2):72–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bevan ET (2015) The psychobiology of transsexualism and transgenderism: a new view based on scientific evidence. Praeger, Santa BarbaraGoogle Scholar
  8. Bockting W, Coleman E, Deutsch MB, Guillamon A, Meyer I, Meyer W, Reisner S, Sevelius J, Ettner R (2016) Adult development and quality of life of transgender and gender nonconforming people. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 23(2):188–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouman WP, Claes L, Marshall E, Pinner GT, Longworth J, Maddox V, Witcomb G, Jimenez-Murcia S, Fernandez-Aranda F, Arcelus J (2016) Sociodemographic variables, clinical features, and the role of pre-assessment cross-sex hormones in older trans people. J Sex Med 13(4):711–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowling NA, Eschleman KJ, Wang Q (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the relationship between job satisfaction and subjective well-being. J Occup Organ Psychol 83(4):915–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boza C, Nicholson Perry K (2014) Gender-related victimization, perceived social support, and predictors of depression among transgender Australians. Int J Transgend 15(1):35–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bozani V, Drydakis N, Sidiropoulou K, Harvey B, Paraskevopoulou A (2019) Workplace positive actions, trans people’s self-esteem and human resources’ evaluations. Int J ManpowGoogle Scholar
  13. Brewster ME, Velez BL, DeBlaere C, Moradi B (2012) Transgender individuals’ workplace experiences: the application of sexual minority measures and models. J Couns Psychol 59(1):60–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brewster ME, Velez BL, Mennicke A, Tebbe E (2014) Voices from beyond: a thematic content analysis of transgender employees’ workplace experiences. Psychol Sex Orientat Gend Divers 1(2):159–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brill S, Pepper R (2008) The transgender child: a handbook for families and professionals. Cleis Press, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  16. Budge SL, Katz-Wise SL, Tebbe NE, Howard ASK, Schneider CL, Rodriquez A (2013) Transgender emotional and coping processes: facilitative and avoidant coping throughout gender transitioning. Couns Psychol 41(4):601–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Budge SL, Orovecz JJ, Thai LJ (2015) Trans men’s positive emotions: the interaction of gender identity and emotion labels. Couns Psychol 43(3):404–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Callan E (2014) A qualitative analysis of transgender women’s lived experiences of one-to-one psychosocial support in the context of presenting as female. PhD thesis, University of Leicester, LeicesterGoogle Scholar
  19. Cardoso da Silva D, Schwarz K, Fontanari AMV, Costa AB, Massuda R, Henriques AA, Salvador J, Silveira E, Elias Rosito T, Lobato MI (2016) Before and after sex reassignment surgery in Brazilian male-to-female transsexual individuals. J Sex Med 13(6):988–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Castellano E, Crespi C, Dell’Aquila R, Rosato C, Catalano V, Mineccia V, Motta G, Botto E, Manieri C (2015) Quality of life and hormones after sex reassignment surgery. J Endocrinol Investig 38(12):1373–1381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cheng Z, Smyth R (2015) Sex and happiness. J Econ Behav Organ 112:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clair JA, Beatty J, MacLean T (2005) Out of sight but not out of mind: managing invisible social identities in the workplace. Acad Manag Rev 30(1):78–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Colizzi M, Costa R, Pace V, Todarello O (2013) Hormonal treatment reduces psychobiological distress in gender identity disorder, independently of the attachment style. J Sex Med 10(12):3049–3058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Colton-Meier SL, Fitzgerald KM, Pardo ST, Babcock J (2011) The effects of hormonal gender affirmation treatment on mental health in female-to-male transsexuals. J Gay Lesbian Ment Health 15(3):281–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Costa R, Colizzi M (2016) The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals’ mental health: a systematic review. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 12:1953–1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Costantino A, Cerpolini S, Alvisi S, Morselli PG, Venturoli S, Meriggiola MC (2013) A prospective study on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexuals during testosterone administration and after sex reassignment surgery. J Sex Marital Ther 39(4):321–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Croteau JM, Anderson MZ, VanderWal BL (2008) Models of workplace sexual identity disclosure and management: reviewing and extending concepts. Group Org Manag 33(5):532–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Culbertson SS, Fullagar CJ, Mills MJ (2010) Feeling good and doing great: the relationship between psychological capital and well-being. J Occup Health Psychol 15(4):421–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Curtis EF, Dreachslin JL (2008) Diversity management interventions and organizational performance: a synthesis of current literature. Hum Resour Dev Rev 7(1):107–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Davis SA, Meier SC (2014) Effects of testosterone treatment and chest reconstruction surgery on mental health and sexuality in female-to-male transgender people. Int J Sex Health 26(2):113–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. De Cuypere G, T’Sjoen G, Beerten R, Selvaggi G, De Sutter P, Hoebeke P, Rubens R (2005) Sexual and physical health after sex reassignment surgery. Arch Sex Behav 34(6):679–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De Cuypere G, Elaut E, Heylens G, Van Maele G, Selvaggi G, T’Sjoen G, Monstrey S (2006) Long-term follow-up: psychosocial outcome of Belgian transsexuals after sex reassignment surgery. Sexologies 15(2):126–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. de Vries AL, McGuire JK, Steensma TD, Wagenaar EC, Doreleijers TA, Cohen-Kettenis PT (2014) Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment. Pediatrics 134(4):696–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dhejne C, Lichtenstein P, Boman M, Johansson ALV, Langstrom N, Landen M (2011) Long-term follow-up of transsexual persons undergoing sex reassignment surgery: cohort study in Sweden. PLoS One 6(2):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dhejne C, Van Vlerken R, Heylens G, Arcelus J (2016) Mental health and gender dysphoria: a review of the literature. Int Rev Psychiatry 28(1):44–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Drydakis N (2016) Transgenderism, sex reassignment surgery and employees’ job-satisfaction. In: Köllen T (ed) Sexual orientation and transgender issues in organizations global perspectives on LGBT workforce diversity. Springer, New York, pp 83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Drydakis N (2017a) Trans people, well-being, and labor market outcomes. IZA World of Labor, no. 386. IZA World of Labor, BonnGoogle Scholar
  38. Drydakis N (2017b) Trans employees, transitioning, and job satisfaction. J Vocat Behav 98:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dwertmann DJG, Nishii LH, van Knippenberg D (2016) Disentangling the fairness and discrimination and synergy perspectives on diversity climate: moving the field forwards. J Manag 42(5):1136–1168Google Scholar
  40. Edú S, Moriano JA, Molero F, Topa G (2012) Authentic leadership and its effect on employees’ organizational citizenship behaviours. Psicothema 24(2):561–566Google Scholar
  41. Elliot AJ, Thrash TM (2002) Approach–avoidance motivation in personality: approach and avoidance temperaments and goals. J Pers Soc Psychol 82(5):804–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Extension Center for Family Development (2017) Mental health of transgender youth: the role of family, school, and community in promoting resilience. University of Minnesota, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  43. Gerhardstein K, Anderson V (2010) There’s more than meets the eye: facial appearance and evaluations of transsexual people. Sex Roles 62(5–6):361–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gijs L, Brewaeys A (2007) Surgical treatment of gender dysphoria in adults and adolescents: recent developments, effectiveness, and challenges. Annu Rev Sex Res 18(1):178–224Google Scholar
  45. Glynn TR, Gamarel KE, Kahler CW, Iwamoto M, Operario D, Nemoto T (2016) The role of gender affirmation in psychological well-being among transgender women. Psychol Sex Orientat Gend Divers 3(3):336–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gómez-Gil E, Zubiaurre-Elorza L, de Antonio ED, Guillamon A, Salamero M (2014) Determinants of quality of life in Spanish transsexuals attending a gender unit before genital sex reassignment surgery. Qual Life Res 23(2):669–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gorin-Lazard A, Baumstarck K, Boyer L, Maquigneau A, Gebleux S, Penochet J, Pringuey D, Albarel F, Morange I, Loundou A, Berbis J, Auquier P, Lançon C, Bonierbale M (2012) Is hormonal therapy associated with better quality of life in transsexuals? A cross-sectional study. J Sex Med 9(2):531–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gorin-Lazard A, Baumstarck K, Boyer L, Maquigneau A, Penochet JC, Pringuey D, Albarel F, Morange I, Bonierbale M, Lançon C, Auquier P (2013) Hormonal therapy is associated with better self-esteem, mood, and quality of life in transsexuals. J Nerv Ment Dis 201(11):996–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Government Equalities Office (2015) Recruiting and retaining transgender staff: a guide for employers. Government Equalities Office, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  50. Grant JM, Mottet LA, Tanis J, Herman JL, Harrison J, Keisling M (2010) National transgender discrimination survey report on health and health care. National Center for Transgender Equality and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  51. Green R (2005) Gender identity disorder. In: Sadock BJ, Sadock VA (eds) Kaplan and Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 1979–1991Google Scholar
  52. Greytak EA, Kosciw JG, Boesen MJ (2013) Putting the “T” in “resource”: the benefits of LGBT-related school resources for transgender youth. J LGBT Youth 10(1–2):45–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Griffith KH, Hebl MR (2002) The disclosure dilemma for gay men and lesbians: “coming out” at work. J Appl Psychol 87(6):1191–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hess J, Neto RR, Panic L, Rübben H, Senf W (2014) Satisfaction with male-to-female gender reassignment surgery: results of a retrospective analysis. Dtsch Arztebl Int 111(47):795–801Google Scholar
  55. Heylens G, Verroken C, De Cock S, T’Sjoen G, De Cuypere G (2014) Effects of different steps in gender reassignment therapy on psychopathology: a prospective study of persons with a gender identity disorder. J Sex Med 11(1):119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Horbach SER, Bouman MB, Smit JM, Özer M, Buncamper ME, Mullender MG (2015) Outcome of vaginoplasty in male-to-female transgenders: a systematic review of surgical techniques. J Sex Med 12(6):1499–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Huffman AH, Watrous-Rodriguez KM, King EB (2008) Supporting a diverse workforce: what type of support is most meaningful for lesbian and gay employees? Hum Resour Manag 47(2):237–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Imbimbo C, Verze P, Palmieri A, Longo N, Fusco F, Arcaniolo D, Mirone V (2009) A report from a single institute’s 14-year experience in treatment of male-to-female transsexuals. J Sex Med 6(10):2736–2745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Johansson A, Sundbom E, Hojerback T, Bodlund O (2010) A five-year follow-up study of Swedish adults with gender identity disorder. Arch Sex Behav 39(6):1429–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Keo-Meier CL, Herman LI, Reisner SL, Pardo ST, Sharp C, Babcock JC (2015) Testosterone treatment and MMPI-2 improvement in transgender men: a prospective controlled study. J Consult Clin Psychol 83:143–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Köllen T (2016) Sexual orientation and transgender issues in organizations: global perspectives on LGBT workforce diversity. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kosciw JG, Greytak EA, Bartkiewicz MJ, Boesen MJ, Palmer NA (2012) The 2011 National School Climate Survey: the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. Kraemer B, Delsignore A, Schnyder U, Hepp U (2008) Body image and transsexualism. Psychopathology 41(2):96–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kuvalanka KA, Weiner JL, Mahan D (2014) Child, family, and community transformations: findings from interviews with mothers of transgender girls. J GLBT Fam Stud 10(4):354–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Law CL, Martinez LR, Ruggs EN, Hebl MR, Akers E (2011) Trans-parency in the workplace: how the experiences of transsexual employees can be improved. J Vocat Behav 79:710–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liddle BJ, Luzzo DA, Hauenstein AL, Schuck K (2004) Construction and validation of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered climate inventory. J Career Assess 12(1):33–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lindqvist EK, Sigurjonsson H, Möllermark C, Rinder J, Farnebo F, Lundgren TK (2017) Quality of life improves early after gender reassignment surgery in transgender women. Eur J Plast Surg 40(3):223–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Linley PA, Maltby J, Wood AM, Osborne G, Hurling R (2009) Measuring happiness: the higher order factor structure of subjective and psychological wellbeing measures. Personal Individ Differ 47(8):878–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lobato MII, Koff WJ, Manenti C, Seger D, Salvador J, Fortes M, Henriques AA (2006) Follow-up of sex reassignment surgery in transsexuals: a Brazilian cohort. Arch Sex Behav 35(6):711–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Luthans F, Avolio BJ (2009) The point of positive organizational behavior. J Organ Behav 30(2):291–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lyubomirsky S, King L, Diener E (2005) The benefits of frequent positive affect: does happiness lead to success? Psychol Bull 131(6):803–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Manieri C, Castellano E, Crespi C, Di Bisceglie C, Dell’Aquila C, Gualerzi A, Molo M (2014) Medical treatment of subjects with gender identity disorder: the experience in an Italian Public Health Center. Int J Transgend 15(2):53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Martinez LR, Sawyer KB, Thoroughgood CN, Ruggs EN, Smith NA (2017) The importance of being “me”: the relation between authentic identity expression and transgender employees’ work-related attitudes and experiences. J Appl Psychol 102(2):215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McGuire JK, Conover-Williams M (2010) Creating spaces to support transgender youth. Prev Res 17(4):17–20Google Scholar
  75. McNeil J, Bailey L, Ellis S, Morton J, Regan M (2012) Trans mental health and emotional wellbeing study 2012. Scottish Transgender Alliance, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  76. Michel A, Ansseau M, Legros J, Pitchot W, Mormont C (2002) The transsexual: what about the future? Eur Psychiatry 17(6):353–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morton J (2008) Transgender experiences in Scotland. Scottish Transgender Alliance, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  78. Murad MH, Elamin MB, Garcia MZ, Mullan RJ, Murad A, Erwin PJ, Montori VM (2010) Hormonal therapy and sex reassignment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes. Clin Endocrinol 72(2):214–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nelson L, Whallett EJ, McGregor JC (2009) Transgender patient satisfaction following reduction mammaplasty. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 62(3):331–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Norton AT, Herek GM (2013) Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward transgender people: findings from a national probability sample of U.S. adults. Sex Roles 68(11–12):738–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. OECD (2019) Society at glance. OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  82. Olson KR, Durwood L, DeMeules M, McLaughlin KA (2016) Mental health of transgender children who are supported in their identities. Pediatrics 137(3):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Parola N, Bonierbale M, Lemaire L, Aghababian V, Michel A, Lancon C (2010) Study of quality of life for transsexuals after hormonal and surgical reassignment. Sexologies 19(1):24–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pavot WG, Diener E (2008) The satisfaction with life scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. J Posit Psychol 3(2):137–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Posthuma RA, Campion MC, Masimova M, Campion MA (2013) A high performance work practices taxonomy: integrating the literature and directing future research. J Manag 39(5):1184–1220Google Scholar
  86. Powell G, Greenhaus J (2010) Sex, gender, and decision at the family → work interface. J Manag 36(4):1011–1039Google Scholar
  87. Qu H, Zhao X (2012) Employees’ work–family conflict moderating life and job satisfaction. J Bus Res 65(1):22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rabelo VC, Cortina LM (2014) Two sides of the same coin: gender harassment and heterosexist harassment in LGBQ work lives. Law Hum Behav 38(4):378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ragins BR (2008) Disclosure disconnects: antecedents and consequences of disclosing invisible stigmas across life domains. Acad Manag Rev 33(1):194–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Reisner SL, Poteat T, Keatley J, Cabral M, Mothopeng T, Dunham E, Holland C, Max R, Baral SD (2016) Global health burden and needs of transgender populations: a review. Lancet 388(10042):412–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ruggs EN, Martinez LR, Hebl MR, Law CL (2015) Workplace “trans”-actions: how organizations, co-workers, and individual openness influence perceived gender identity discrimination. Psychol Sex Orientat Gend Divers 2(4):404–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ruppin U, Pfäfflin F (2015) Long-term follow-up of adults with gender identity disorder. Arch Sex Behav 44(5):1321–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ryan C, Russell ST, Huebner D, Diaz R, Sanchez J (2010) Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of LGBT young adults. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 23(4):205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Salvador J, Massuda R, Andreazza T, Koff WJ, Silveira E, Kreische F, Lobato MIR (2012) Minimum 2-year follow up of sex reassignment surgery in Brazilian male-to-female transsexuals. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 66(4):370–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schmidt L, Levine R (2015) Psychological outcomes and reproductive issues among gender dysphoric individuals. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 44(4):773–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schmitt MT, Branscombe NR, Postmes T, Garcia A (2014) The consequences of perceived discrimination for psychological well-being: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull 140(4):921–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Scottish Transgender Alliance and Stonewall Scotland (2012) Changing for the better: how to include trans people in your workplace. A guide for employers. Scottish Transgender Alliance and Stonewall Scotland, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  98. Sears D, Mallory C (2011) Documented evidence of employment discrimination and its effects on LGBT people. The Williams Institute, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  99. Sevelius JM (2013) Gender affirmation: a framework for conceptualizing risk behavior among transgender women of color. Sex Roles 68(11–12):675–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sidiropoulou K, Drydakis N, Harvey B, Paraskevopoulou A (2019) Family support, school-age and workplace bullying for LGB people. Int J ManpowGoogle Scholar
  101. Simonsen RK, Giraldi A, Kristensen E, Hald GM (2016) Long-term follow-up of individuals undergoing sex reassignment surgery: psychiatric morbidity and mortality. Nord J Psychiatry 70(4):241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Smith YLS, Van Goozen SHM, Kuiper AJ, Cohen-Kettenis PT (2005) Sex reassignment: outcomes and predictors of treatment for adolescent and adult transsexuals. Psychol Med 35(1):89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tatum AK (2018) Workplace climate and satisfaction in sexual minority populations: an application of social cognitive career theory. J Couns Psychol 65(5):618–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tebbe EA, Allan BA, Bell HL (2019) Work and well-being in TGNC adults: the moderating effect of workplace protections. J Couns Psychol 66(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Trevor M, Boddy J (2013) Transgenderism and Australian social work: a literature review. Aust Soc Work 66(4):555–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. van de Grift TC, Elaut E, Cerwenka SC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Kreukels BPC (2017) Surgical satisfaction, quality of life, and their association after gender-affirming surgery: a follow-up study. J Sex Marital Ther 44(2):138–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Webster JR, Adams GA, Maranto CL, Sawyer K, Thoroughgood C (2018) Workplace contextual supports for LGBT employees: a review, meta-analysis, and agenda for future research. Hum Resour Manag 57(1):193–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Weyers S, Elaut E, De Sutter P, Gerris J, T’Sjoen G, Heylens G, De Cuypere G, Verstraelen H (2009) Long-term assessment of the physical, mental, and sexual health among transsexual women. J Sex Med 6(3):752–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. White Hughto JM, Reisner SL (2016) A systematic review of the effects of hormone therapy on psychological functioning and quality of life in transgender individuals. Transgend Health 1(1):21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. White Hughto JM, Reisner SL, Pachankis JE (2015) Transgender stigma and health: a critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions. Soc Sci Med 147:222–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wirth JH, Williams KD (2009) They don’t like our kind: consequences of being ostracized while possessing a group membership. Group Process Intergroup Relat 12(1):111–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Economics and International Business, Centre for Pluralist Economics, Faculty of Business and LawAnglia Ruskin UniversityCambridgeUK
  2. 2.University of Cambridge, Pembroke CollegeCambridgeUK
  3. 3.Centre for Science and PolicyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  4. 4.Institute for the Study of LaborBonnGermany
  5. 5.Global Labor OrganizationEssenGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Nick Drydakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Economics and International Business, Lord Ashcroft International Business School, Centre for Pluralist EconomicsAnglia Ruskin UniversityCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations