Reference work entry
Midbrain glioma; Pontine glioma
Brainstem gliomas are highly aggressive tumors of the central nervous system occurring more frequently in children than in adults (Fig. 1). This type of tumors often originates from the left side and typically involves one of three anatomical locations within the brainstem. Pontine brainstem gliomas are associated with the poorest prognosis for survival, while tectal and cervicomedullary gliomas are associated with longer survival. Tectal brainstem gliomas are often associated with hydrocephalus as a result of compression of the fourth ventricle. Typical manifestations of cervicomedullary tumors include dysphagia, unsteadiness, nasal speech, and sensory loss in the face. Pontine brainstem gliomas are associated with cranial nerve or long tract symptoms, including problems with the control of facial muscles, ocular movements, and swallowing. Diffuse brainstem gliomas, once thought to be a single entity, are now thought to comprise a...
References and Readings
- Albright, L., Pollack, I., Adelson, P., Humphreys, R., George, T., Painter, M., et al. (2007). Principles and practice of pediatric neurosurgery (2nd ed.). New York: Thieme.Google Scholar
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