Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Dependent Personality Disorder

  • Cynthia RolstonEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9205

Definition

Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) is a clinical disorder characterized by persistent, excessive reliance on others for emotional support and guidance, extreme fear of separation, and pervasive self-doubt about one’s ability to function autonomously. Clinging, submissive relationships across contexts emerge in early adulthood. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association 2013) criteria include:
  • Difficulty making decisions, and initiating and completing tasks independently

  • Requiring others to assume responsibility for major areas of life, fearing inability to meet own needs

  • Going to extreme lengths to sustain nurturance and support, avoiding disagreement with others

  • Feeling uncomfortable or helpless alone, urgently seeking another when a close relationship ends

Categorization

The disorder is classified with the Cluster C Personality Disorders in DSM-5.

Current Knowledge

Prevalence

Prevalence estimates are around...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. American, P. A., & American Psychiatric Association DSM-5,Task Force. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5 (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borge, F. M., Hoffart, A., Sexton, H., Martinsen, E., Gude, T., Hedley, L. M., & Abrahamsen, G. (2010). Pre-treatment predictors and in-treatment factors associated with change in avoidant and dependent personality disorder traits among patients with social phobia. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 17(2), 87–99.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bornstein, R. F. (2012). Illuminating a neglected clinical issue: Societal costs of interpersonal dependency and dependent personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(7), 766–781.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21870.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Ekselius, L., & von Knorring, L. (1998). Personality disorder comorbidity with major depression and response to treatment with sertraline or citalopram. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 13(5), 205–211.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Fernandez Del Rio, E., Lopez, A., & Becona, E. (2010). Personality disorders and premature dropout from psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Psychological Reports, 106(3), 679–684.  https://doi.org/10.2466/PR0.106.3.679-684.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Gore, W. L., & Widiger, T. A. (2015). Assessment of dependency by the FFDI: Comparisons to the PID-5 and maladaptive agreeableness. Personality and Mental Health, 9(4), 258–276.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1308.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Hardy, G. E., Barkham, M., Shapiro, D. A., Stiles, W. B., Rees, A., & Reynolds, S. (1995). Impact of cluster C personality disorders on outcomes of contrasting brief psychotherapies for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(6), 997–1004.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Mallouh, S. K., Abbey, S. E., & Gillies, L. A. (1995). The role of loss in treatment outcomes of persistent somatization. General Hospital Psychiatry, 17(3), 187–191.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. McClintock, A. S., Anderson, T., & Cranston, S. (2015). Mindfulness therapy for maladaptive interpersonal dependency: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Behavior Therapy, 46(6), 856–868.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2015.08.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Park, E. C., Waller, G., & Gannon, K. (2014). Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: The impact of personality disorder cognitions. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42(2), 224–237.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465812001117.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Starcevic, V., Latas, M., Kolar, D., Vucinic-Latas, D., Bogojevic, G., & Milovanovic, S. (2008). Co-occurrence of axis I and axis II disorders in female and male patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49(6), 537–543.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.02.009.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Tyrer, P., Morgan, J., & Cicchetti, D. (2004). The dependent personality questionnaire (DPQ): A screening instrument for dependent personality. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50(1), 10–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Zampieri, M. A., Tognola, W. A., & Galego, J. C. (2014). Patients with chronic headache tend to have more psychological symptoms than those with sporadic episodes of pain. Arquivos De Neuro-Psiquiatria, 72(8), 598–602. https://doi.org/S0004-282X2014000800598 [pii].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PM&RVirginia Commonwealth University-Medical College of VirginiaRichmondUSA