Gender identity disorder; Transgender; Transsexual
Gender dysphoria is a psychological condition that occurs when an individual’s gender identity and assigned or natal sex are incongruent. Gender dysphoria is marked by significant affective and cognitive distress as a result of the incongruence. The discrepancy between gender and sex and the resultant distress are hallmarks of this condition. Previously referred to as gender identity disorder, gender dysphoria focuses on dysphoria as the presenting clinical issues, as opposed to identity.
Development and Course
Prevalence ranges are both higher and wider for natal adult males (0.005–0.014%), as compared to natal adult females (0.002–0.003%). Gender dysphoria may manifest throughout the lifespan; however, clinical presentation differs between age groups. Diagnostic criteria are available for children, and adolescents and adults. Diagnostic criteria for children are usually more concrete, behavioral...
References and Readings
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- Reed, G. M., Drescher, J., Krueger, R. B., Atalla, E., Cochran, S. D., First, M. B., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Arango-de Montis, I., Parish, S. J., Cottler, S., Briken, P., & Saxena, S. (2016). Disorders related to sexuality and gender identity in the ICD-11: Revising the ICD-10 classification based on current scientific evidence, best clinical practices, and human rights considerations. World Psychiatry, 15(3), 205–221.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wylie, K., Barrett, J., Besser, M., Bouman, W. P., Bridgman, M., Clayton, A., ... Khoosal, D. (2014). Good practice guidelines for the assessment and treatment of adults with gender dysphoria. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 29(2), 154–214.Google Scholar