Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

  • Kristin M. GrahamEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9189


Feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood


Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association 2013) as a feeding and eating disorder characterized by avoidance or restriction of food intake. Symptoms often manifest as a lack of interest, sensory based avoidance (e.g., color, smell, texture), or concern of adverse consequences. Avoidance and/or restriction of food intake must also be accompanied by one or more key features, such as significant weight loss or nutritional deficiency, to meet diagnostic criteria.


The disorder is classified with the feeding and eating disorders in DSM-5. The disorder replaces the DSM-IV diagnosis of feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood.

Current Knowledge

Development and Course

ARFID typically develops in infancy or early childhood but may continue into adulthood. The majority of individuals...

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References and Readings

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5 ®). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Norris, M. L., & Katzman, D. K. (2015). Change is never easy, but it is possible: Reflections on avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder two years after its introduction in the DSM-5. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(1), 8–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Williams, K. E., Hendy, H. M., Field, D. G., Belousov, Y., Riegel, K., & Harclerode, W. (2015). Implications of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) on children with feeding problems. Children’s Health Care, 44(4), 307–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA