Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

  • Amma A. AgyemangEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9173


Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)


Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association 2013) as a depressive disorder typified by marked mood changes (i.e., anxiety, depression, irritability, affective lability) as well as behavioral and physical symptoms (i.e., anhedonia, difficulty concentrating, lethargy, dyssomnia), which occur immediately prior to menses, improve during menses, and become minimal or absent immediately after menses. It is critical that PMDD is differentiated from the exacerbation of other mental disorders around the time of menses. For example, PMDD has a short and cyclical course compared to the chronicity observed in major depressive disorder. Although PMDD and PMS are often used interchangeably, they are different; the latter is considered less severe and does not require the presence of affective symptoms.


PMDD is classified...

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References and Readings

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Martinez, P. E., Rubinow, D. R., Nieman, L. K., Koziol, D. E., Morrow, A. L., Schiller, C. E., ... & Schmidt, P. J. (2016). 5α-reductase inhibition prevents the luteal phase increase in plasma allopregnanolone levels and mitigates symptoms in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41(4), 1093–1102.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Pearlstein, T. (2016). Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Therapeutic challenges. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, 9(4), 493–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVirginia Commonwealth University Medical CenterRichmondUSA