The suprasegmental features (segments are sounds) of speech conveyed by pitch, loudness, and rhythm and perceived as melody and word stress (Monrad-Krohn 1948; Wymer et al. 2002). Linguistic, or intrinsic, prosody aids meaning; for example, convict versus convict, or a rising pitch at the end of a sentence to signify a question. Affective, or extrinsic, prosody conveys attitude; for example, incredulity, disdain, sadness, or anger. Expression of prosody appears to be primarily dependent on right hemisphere functions (linguistic prosody also involves left hemisphere language centers) and motor planning and programming. Intact motor pathways and speech end organs for respiration, phonation, resonance, and articulation are required as well (Baum and Pell 1999; Boutsen and Christman 2002; Duffy 2005; Ross and Monnot 2008). Perception of prosody is similarly bilateral and mostly overlapping (Witteman et al. 2014, but affective and linguistic prosody diverge to activate different...
References and Readings
- Duffy, J. R. (2005). Motor speech disorders: Substrates, differential diagnosis, and management. St. Louis: Mosby.Google Scholar
- Witteman, J., Goerlich-Dobre, K. S., Martens, S., Aleman, A., Van Heuven, V. J., & Schiller, N. O. (2014). The nature of hemispheric specialization for prosody perception. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14, 1104–1114.Google Scholar