Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Pre-Pulse Inhibition

  • Eric S. PorgesEmail author
  • Damon G. Lamb
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9138

Definition

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is attenuation of a response to a startle-inducing stimulus (e.g., acoustic pulse), when a short duration stimulus of lower magnitude (the prepulse) is presented shortly before. PPI is generally understood to represent a modulation, i.e., adaptation, of sensorimotor gating (Swerdlow et al. 2008), where the preceding stimuli modulates the response to the later stimuli. PPI is typically investigated using acoustic stimuli, with movement as the measurement of startle response. Other stimuli modalities, such as tactile or visual, as well as cross-modal paradigms have been applied as well (Young et al. 2010). The standard procedure for the quantification of PPI involves subtraction of the pulse response when paired with a prepulse to a pulse response without a prepulse. Quantification is most commonly achieved in humans using electromyographic response of the musculature around the eye, specifically orbicularis oculi. The utility of PPI as a research...

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References and Readings

  1. Aasen, I., Kolli, L., & Kumari, V. (2005). Sex effects in prepulse inhibition and facilitation of the acoustic startle response: Implications for pharmacological and treatment studies. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 19(1), 39–45.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881105048890.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
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  5. Swerdlow, N. R., Braff, D. L., & Geyer, M. A. (2016). Sensorimotor gating of the startle reflex: What we said 25 years ago, what has happened since then, and what comes next. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30(11), 1072–1081.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881116661075.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG (outside the USA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Health PsychologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, McKnight Brain InstituteUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  4. 4.Brain Rehabilitation Research Center, Malcom Randall VAMCGainesvilleUSA