Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Macular Degeneration

  • Paige LysneEmail author
  • Yenisel Cruz-Almeida
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9102


The leading cause of irreversible blindness in those over the age of 50 in the developed world, macular degeneration, is a progressive disease characterized by degeneration of the macula. The presence of drusen, generally pale or yellowish lesions found between the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane in the eye, is thought to be the first sign of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (Khandhadia et al. 2012). Excess drusen can lead to damage of the retinal pigment epithelium which has several functions including cytokine secretion and nutrient transport. Early, intermediate, and advanced AMD are all classified, using a system created by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, by the size of the drusen present/not present in the eye. Smaller and fewer drusen are more associated with early AMD and less visual impairment, whereas larger and more prevalent drusen are associated with advanced AMD and generally much more visual impairment. Advanced AMD is classified as...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG (outside the USA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, Institute of AgingUniversity of Florida – College of MedicineGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Pain Research and Intervention Center of Excellence Clinical and Translational Science InstituteUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA