Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Academic Techniques

  • Ginger MillsEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9049


Academic techniques are a set of rehabilitation strategies that are aimed at facilitating learning. While there are a myriad of techniques available to aid in learning, evidence continues to grow for the effectiveness of specific instructional strategies. These strategies assist individuals with cognitive impairments in learning new information and skills. Various models for improving learning and memory have been developed, some of which include TEACH-M (Task Analysis, Errorless learning, Assessment, Cumulative review, High rates of correct practice, Metacognitive strategies); PQRST (Preview, Question, Read, State, and Test); and the pediatric neurocognitive intervention (PNI) methods.

Historical Background

Much of the research for academic techniques and strategies stems from the special education field, which utilizes such techniques to teach those with learning disabilities (Sohlberg et al. 2005). Researchers in the neuropsychology field have continued to build upon...

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References and Readings

  1. Ciaramelli, E., Neri, F., Marini, L., & Braghittoni, D. (2015). Improving memory following prefrontal cortex damage with the PQRST method. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9(211), 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  8. Swanson, H. L. (1999). Instructional components that predict treatment outcomes for students with learning disabilities: Support for a combined strategy and direct instruction model. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 14(3), 129–140.  https://doi.org/10.1207/sldrp1403_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Professional PsychologyUniversity of HartfordWest HartfordUSA