Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Intraoperative fMRI

  • Daniel SmithEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9034


Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to identify eloquent brain regions prior to tissue removal during neurosurgery. However, a known problem with relying upon preoperative functional mapping is that the patient’s brain shifts during the neurosurgical procedure due to gravity, movement of the dura, and the brain’s filling of space once occupied by cerebral spinal fluid or other removed tissue (e.g., brain tumor). Intraoperative fMRI (i-fMRI) was developed as a method to minimize error caused by “brain shift” by integrating fMRI within specialized operating theaters during neurosurgical procedures (Gasser et al. 2005). Functional localization using i-fMRI has been limited to the localization of somatosensory cortex given the patient is anesthetized during the procedure. More recently, awake i-fMRI (ai-fMRI) has shown potential in allowing the functional localization of cognitive activities of higher complexity given the patient may perform volitional...

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Winship Cancer InstituteEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA