Learned motor non-use; Learned non-use of spoken communication
Observed reduction of a behavior that cannot be exclusively attributed to an impairment in the central nervous system.
Learned non-use was first observed in basic research conducted with monkeys who underwent surgical deafferentation of an upper limb. After deafferentation, researchers observed that when the monkeys used a compromised arm or hand to obtain food, they would do so inefficiently resulting in a form of negative reinforcement. Consequently, in an attempt to become more proficient, the monkeys resorted to only using their unaffected upper limb to climb and eat with relative ease. This positively reinforced the behavior of not using an impaired limb. Since the observed diminished motor movement of the monkeys’ impaired limb could not solely be accredited to the surgically induced central nervous system damage, the investigators coined the observed behavior − learned...
References and References
- Ball, A. L., Grether, S., Szaflarski, J. P., Griffith, N., Al-Fwaress, F., Newmeyer, A. J., …, & Reichhardt, R. (2006). Constraint-induced aphasia treatment (CIAT) in patients with chronic language impairment after stroke. Neurology, 66(2), A324–A325.Google Scholar
- Cherney, L., Patterson, J., Raymer, A., Frymark, T., & Schooling, T. (2010). Updated evidence-based systematic review: Effects of intensity of treatment and constraint-induced language therapy for individuals with stroke-induced aphasia. Rockville Pike: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available online at http://www.asha.org/uploadedFiles/EBSR-Updated-CILTCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Skinner, B. F. (1957). The experimental analysis of behavior. Reprinted in American Scientist 2012, 100(1), 54–61.Google Scholar
- Szaflarski, J. P., Ball, A., Grether, S., Al-fwaress, F., Griffith, N., Neils-Strunjas, J., …, & Reichhardt, R. (2008). Constraint-induced aphasia therapy stimulates language recovery in patients with chronic aphasia after ischemic stroke. Medical Science Monitor, 14(5), 243–250.Google Scholar
- Taub, E. (1977). Movement in nonhuman primates deprived of somatosensory feedback. In Exercises and sports science reviews. Santa Barbara: Journal Publishing Affiliates.Google Scholar
- Taub, E. (1980). Somatosensory deafferentation research with monkeys: Implications for rehabilitation medicine. In L. P. Ince (Ed.), Behavioral psychology in rehabilitation medicine: Clinical applications (pp. 371–401). New York: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
- Taub, E., Barro, G., Parker, B., & Gorska, T. (1972). Utility of a limb following unilateral deafferentation in monkeys. Houston: Society for Neuroscience.Google Scholar
- Thorndike, E. L. (1898). Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals. The Psychological Review: Monograph Supplements, 2(4), 1–109.Google Scholar