Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)

  • David WatsonEmail author
  • Holly Levin-Aspenson
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_9007




The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al. 1988) is a widely used mood measure comprising two brief scales: Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA). The PA scale includes 10 positive mood terms (“interested,” “excited,” “strong,” “enthusiastic,” “proud,” “alert,” “inspired,” “determined,” “attentive,” and “active”). The NA scale includes 10 negative mood terms (“distressed,” “upset,” “guilty,” “scared,” “hostile,” “irritable,” “ashamed,” “nervous,” “jittery,” and “afraid”). The PA and NA scales are scored by summing the responses to each set of items.

The PANAS is usually administered as a self-report instrument in which respondents rate their own moods and feelings. Respondents are asked to rate the extent to which they felt each of the 20 terms on a 5-point scale (1 = very slightly or not at all, 2 = a little, 3 = moderately, 4 = quite a bit, 5 = extremely) either (a) “right now (that is, at the present moment)” (moment); (b)...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, 124B Haggar HallUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA