Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Literal Paraphasia

  • Hugh W. BuckinghamEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_895

Synonyms

Fluent segmental paraphasia; Phonemic paraphasia; Phonological substitution

Definition

The Greek prefix “para” means “substitution for” and, when affixed to “-phasia,” came to mean a substitution in speech. “Literal” paraphasia was the term for a substitution of a sound segment developed from early research on aphasia in languages with alphabetic writing systems and before the conceptualization of the “phoneme” at the end of the nineteenth century.

Under many important constraints, one phoneme may substitute for another, and as phonemes are understood as a “set of distinctive features,” there is a metric to evaluate phonemic substitutions in terms of the number of shared features between target and error. A majority of phonemic paraphasias, although not all, involve phonemes that differ in only one feature, and thus one can see that “like substitutes for like”: /p/ → /b/ differing in the feature for voice, /n/ → /m/ differing in the feature for place of articulation, and /t/ →...

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References and Readings

  1. Buckingham, H. (1989). Phonological paraphasia. In C. Code (Ed.), The characteristics of aphasia (pp. 89–110). London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  2. Buckingham, H. (1992). The mechanisms of phonemic paraphasia. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 6, 41–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. de Courtenay, J. B. (1885–1886/1972). On pathology and embryology of language. In E. Stankiewicz (Ed. & Trans.), A Baudouin de Courtenay anthology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Martin, N., & Dell, G. S. (2004). Perseverations and anticipations in aphasia: Primed intrusions from the past and the future. Seminars in Speech and Language, 24(4), 349–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Sapir, E. (1921). Language: An introduction to the study of speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.Google Scholar
  6. Sapir, E. (1949). The psychological reality of the phoneme. In D. G. Mandelbaum (Ed.), Selected writings of Edward Sapir in language, culture and personality. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Allied Health Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA