Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Anastasia RaymerEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_857


Naming impairments; Word-finding difficulties


Anomia generally refers to instances of word-finding difficulty that occur during the course of conversational discourse. It is often documented clinically in confrontation picture-naming tasks.

Current Knowledge

Anomia can occur in healthy individuals who occasionally experience difficulty retrieving an intended word during a conversation, also known as the tip-of-the-tongue state (Biedermann et al. 2008). It is a frequent occurrence in individuals with left hemisphere brain damage and aphasia (Raymer 2011). Typically associated with difficulties for nouns, anomia also can refer to difficulties in retrieving other classes of words, such as verbs and adjectives. Anomia arises from failure at any stage in the complex series of lexical processes engaged in word retrieval, including activation of semantic representations for the meaning to be conveyed and phonological representations for the form of the word to express...

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References and Readings

  1. Biedermann, B., Ruh, N., Nickels, L., & Coltheart, M. (2008). Information retrieval in tip of the tongue states: New data and methodological advances. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 37, 171–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Laine, M., & Martin, N. (2006). Anomia: Theoretical and clinical aspects. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  3. Race, D. C., & Hillis, A. E. (2015). The neural mechanisms underlying naming. In A. E. Hillis (Ed.), The handbook of adult language disorders (pp. 151–160). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  4. Raymer, A. M. (2011). Naming and word retrieval problems. In L. L. LaPointe (Ed.), Aphasia and related neurogenic language disorders (4th ed., pp. 95–110). New York: Thieme Medical Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Tippett, D. C., & Hillis, A. E. (2015). The cognitive processes underlying naming. In A. E. Hillis (Ed.), The handbook of adult language disorders (pp. 141–150). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Communication Disorders and Special EducationOld Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA