Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Pélagie M. BeesonEmail author
  • Steven Z. Rapcsak
  • Angel Ball
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_851


Dysgraphia; Written language disorders

Short Description or Definition

Agraphias are acquired disorders of spelling or writing caused by neurological damage in individuals with normal premorbid literacy skills. There are several different agraphia profiles that variously result from impairments of spelling knowledge, sound-to-letter correspondences, letter-shape information, or motor control for handwriting. Although agraphia can occur in relative isolation (pure agraphia), more often agraphia co-occurs with acquired impairments of reading (alexia) and spoken language (aphasia).


Historically, the term agraphia was introduced in 1867 by Ogle with a description of two types: amnemonic and atactic (Lorch 2013). As researchers have developed models of writing processes, these types have become termed central and peripheralsyndromes, each with subcategories. Generally speaking, several distinct forms of acquired agraphia occur that reflect specific combinations of...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG (outside the USA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pélagie M. Beeson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Steven Z. Rapcsak
    • 2
  • Angel Ball
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing SciencesThe University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Neurology Section, Southern Arizona VA Healthcare SystemTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Health SciencesTexas A&M University – KingsvilleKingsvilleUSA