Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Susan LadleyEmail author
  • Nathan D. Zasler
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_80


Placement of an open catheter through the skull and into a ventricle of the brain, draining cerebrospinal fluid externally.

Current Knowledge

External ventricular drains (EVDs) aka ventricular catheter (“ventrics”) are used routinely for monitoring and treating patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, mass lesions, and traumatic brain injury. In intracranial hemorrhage, obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage pathways by blood can lead to acute hydrocephalus and/or elevated intracranial pressure. EVD placement allows for temporary diversion of CSF flow during the acute period of hydrocephalus. In time, CSF flow dynamics may return to normal in many of these patients, allowing the EVD to be discontinued without the need for a permanent shunt. In others, however, chronic hydrocephalus develops and placement of an internalized ventriculoperitoneal shunt may be necessary.

Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is a standard intervention for...

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References and Readings

  1. Fried, H. I., Nathan, B. R., Rowe, A. S., Zabramski, J. M., Andaluz, N., Bhimraj, A., et al. (2016). The insertion and management of external ventricular drains: An evidence-based consensus statement. Neurocritical Care, 24(1), 61–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Rangel-Castillo, L. (2006). Management of intracranial hypertension. Critical Care Clinics, 22(4), 713–732.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Riordan, M., & Chin, L. (2015). Intracranial pressure monitors. Atlas of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, 23(2), 147–150.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Soumitra, R. E. (Ed.). (2009). In Merck manual online. Critical care medicine approach to the critically ill patient patient monitoring and testing. Hagerstown: Lippincott.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationUniversity of Colorado, Denver Health Medical CenterDenverUSA
  2. 2.Concussion Care Centre of Virginia, Ltd.RichmondUSA